Applied Theatre Portfolio

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Applied Performance Digital Portfolio
Chanel Falzon
The portfolio contains reflections on theatre visits, independent research completed for the module and readings.
Log Entry 1
Critical reflection on class notes and readings
Session topic: Theatre for development.
Date: 4 November
Lecturer: Ananda Breed

Theatre development is very useful within communities, as it brings a message to the communities to understand educational values and to inform awareness to the communities, but this in itself can be problematic development is important and has relevance and perception for example, development and under development.
*Offers new ways of doing things so that things might happen.

*Brings about social change, changing things for the better.

Within society development has more reference [gives favour] to the upper middle classes, rather than the working class people.

MDA; [1992] developed changes within the social ream to be able to improve people’s living standards.

Within the reams of development project. You could say that there was an economic arena in place.

Facilitator’s development was to consider the arena of it and the measures with in the place to as at this to happen.

The development was put in either better or worse sections.

Have an awareness of whose arena you are putting to depict or embrace.

T FD uses more of a more of a modernisation approach to communicating messages from the centre to the proprietary. Theatre has been used for mobilisation community, even though this is not a bad thing to be doing. It’s possible it can be problematic to some theatre companies.

Where in to get individuals engaged in dialogue to brainstorm and how the process of going to be developed, theatre poses problems rather than providing solutions.
Therefore, what sort of theatre form is developed because problems arrive within the situation?

Where is the space for action and reaction when trying to carry out change?
Case study theatre for dead development of Malawi. [Action theatre]
There was a lot of interesting features; they use nets mosquito nets as part of their slogan.
It felt like the narrative was part of the drama and the monotony of the women’s for woman’s voice, might just have been normal to people because they understood her totally.
What type of drama was it? Follow theatre of theatre in education? Maybe it was because it had an educated message, it was theatre in education.

Case study/theatre for development in Zimbabwe.

Very interesting perceptive that was observed from the way men and women in the village learn how space and power is used, through drama, plays which showed how to communicate what one was trying to say or to portray.

When undertaking a play addressing within a community tissue. How do you find out what the issue is?

Theatre and Development – Pretki
My reading reference is; Prentki (2015 in print) ‘History and Origins of Theatre for Development’ from Applied Theatre: Development. London Bloomsbury Metuen. Pp. 6-20.
Idea behind the Theatre for Development:
According to Prenkti, Theatre for Development is said to have derived from Marxism’s philosophy.

We were asked to prepare for the class that will be led by Clean Break by reading from the book of Anna Herrmann (2009)
In this book Herrmann explains that the works of Clean Break should not be ‘Prison Theatre’ and also about how ‘Clean Break’ was so effective. In the first instance women were asked if they knew the meaning on ‘Clean Break’. The responses received varied among women, some said it was a safe place, where they could a second chance and start all over again, while others felt it was an alcohol free and drugs zone.
Clean Break is a company that was founded in 1979 by two female prisoners with the aim to help women realise and sustain their ambitions. They now work with women in the communities. The groups consist of women that were once prisoners, women with mental health as a result of drug or alcohol abuse and seen to be at risk. All these types of women are put together to be students who are trained in North London. Herrmann suggests this is more of community theatre.
The company also produced theatre using the women’s stories of crime and this is an annual event with the aim of challenging the audience with their perception of women and crime. The training programme involves working with women directly giving an opportunity for women to develop themselves and become professionals. The belief is that theatre is a social, personal powerful tool to develop women who have gone through criminal justice. Since the 1990s when the Training programme was established, it has grown and now meets the needs of diverse women in the dynamic world. The training programme courses include; Anger in Management, literacy and self-developing skills for life.
However, Herrmann has opinion presented by five women that had gone through ‘Clean Break’. They talked about how the programme has benefited them though they don’t include the company on their CVs so that it doesn’t reveal their past experience. Women felt the place being a ‘Safe Place’ contributed to have them in the company especially those women that experienced violent relationships. The company was also referred to as ‘mother-ship’ because the women could return if needed to.
Finally women talked about giving back to the receiver their changed roles by insipiring other women at the company.

5th November 2014
Week 6: Theatre for Development
This lecture on Applied Theatre –Theatre for Development was delivered by Sheila Preston. She asked us to do an exercise as a warm-up. We were all given numbers 1 to 4, and these numbers corresponded to different animals. She asked us to portray the animals in the best way we can and find others in class that had the same number by identifying the animal they portrayed if it matched with yours. The game was interesting and this helped to focus throughout the session.
Sheila explained that there are many categories that make up “Theatre for Development”. They are only differentiated by names like Theatre in Education. Theatre for Development (TFD) was started in at a university department and was used by middle-class students. They used theatre to understand their communities. She said the word development means progress or making something better. We had a discussion on E15mothers background when we talked about capitalism.
In the session to help us understand, Sheila talked about the quotes of “…Bringing in about social change in order to improve living standards of people” (Mda, 1992). This meant something bigger compared to capitalist development. Another quote was “…Address issues of self development by participating in theatre process” (Prenki in Eskamp, 2006). This quote means to develop those taking part not only to develop and area of space.

Sheila talked about modernisation approach to development and mentioned President Truman and that of 1949. He brought about terms of ‘underdeveloped countries’ and ‘third world’. His feeling was that poverty in the underdeveloped countries was a ‘handicap’. TFD was used as ways to communicate to messages to the target audience of the government as exogenous development. The use of visual images was effective because they felt it stayed in people’s minds longer than listening to speech.
Exogenous development includes:
 Modernised principles
 We know what’s best for you approach
 Theatre carrying messages on themes like health and literacy
This was changed in 1990s from modernisation to participation. They made people learn by doing what they were told to do than just listening. However, this was argued it was not the right way. Therefore the alternative approach was endogenous theatre which involved listening, dialogue and empowered people that participated.
At this point we had an access break. When we returned to the session,

Log Entry 2
Critical reflection on workshop
Session topic: Being a facilitator
Date: 4 November
Lecturer: Ananda Breed
Working with in Ananda’s class. I was learning the understanding of what it would be like to become a facilitator, what they have to do and why? I found this work extremely useful and stimulating and because of this it helped me open my mind and think out of the box to develop new techniques and I found myself beginning to think in different ways of thinking as a facilitator would think, after doing the workshop with Amanda I gained knowledge and learnt that we use techniques and add these techniques to my tool belt of knowledge, therefore, when I need to use any technique I could pull it out of my tool belt and use it. I found this technique extremely useful.
Rhondda showed the warmup from other cultures and Rhondda was aware of what the students were doing in the room, as a good facilitator massed have the most energy as this is very important because they must take notes of what’s happening to the group within movements and different energy levels.

When you wear trainers hat on, when you fill the exercise, it is important, then make sure the group is relax so you must gave the group space to create a comfortable environment.
You must monitor your own work as you are the trainer, use games so this helps facilitator to remember better take note. It is very important. The use of space at the same time try to memorise the space as the facilitator’s job is to prepare the space beforehand example; get the chairs set out ready before the class begins when filling the space be mindful of what’s happening around you, and question whether any of the students was having any problems with in the space beforehand before that point. Hundred and
Participation of theatre involves the actor and the audience to be able to communicate together. This is achieved through questions and answers for the example; to relate to every day live involvement of the audience to take part of what is going on and how to develop trust with in the group and the participates, taking part as the facilitator is showing guidelines to the project and must add a very deep awareness in regard to what is needed to be done.
Log Entry 3
Critical reflection on theatre visit and 5 associated photographs
Play: Dusk
Date: 4 October

On Saturday October 4th 2014 at 11:30am, myself and my two children age 9 and 10 there names were Paris and Lee arrived at the theatre in Stratford Circus, we arrived early so we sat at a table and waited.

At 11:30am the door was opened by a lady standing in front of the door, we got directed in by the Asia to go and stand next to the wall. The atmuastfear was misty then everybody stood around waiting, my most clever daughter Paris notested there was tails hanging from the ceiling!

The actor introduced himself as an It and explained that him and the other It’s lived in a forest. The actor was expressing the story of the It family, suddenly the tails that Paris saw hanging from the ceiling was being lowered by a rope. There was tails for adults, kids and toddles also baby’s there was no more kids tails so Paris got an adult tail she felt and stroked the tail it was soft and the size of the tail was really big, she liked it and wanted to keep it. Paris thought she could and she thought they were giving them out and letting you keep them but then I explained that she couldn’t, she wasn’t actually upset she just wanted to see the show and participate in it.

When I asked Lee if he was going to get a tail he said no because he thought he was too old to take part I didn’t think so the adults took tails so why can’t he? In addition to that they were older than him so I didn’t think he was too old are you kidding me? So he did not take a tail.

When the other people received their tails they put them on and helped their little ones to put them on Paris thought it was fun having a tail on because Paris like well-loved fluffy soft things like teddy bears and the tails were fluffy (well I think fluffy) and soft but she didn’t really like the colour the colour was brownish and she didn’t really like that.

Then everyone sat down within the setup of the stage, the actor was spinning howling like a wolf! The projector was used within the theatre the film showed a story of an It like the actor himself. You needed a green mark on your forehead to show that you lived in the forest with the It family so we got green face paint on out forehead Paris got it on her forehead and her nose. Just then next to the screen coming from the projector was a big glowing ball that changed colours! It was amazing but strange it was strange because the glowing ball was shown in the film and the It got lost but he followed the ball it was very strange but good so we can have a closer look at the ball the one next to the projector.
A little bit later when the It was still lost he found the forest! But he saw something dreadful a machine was tearing the forest apart! It was total torture! BUT WAIT A SECOND he found the same red door that was in the theatre! He peered once through the red door but it was like a totally different world…… but when he looked again he found his family after that he was walking through the red door in the theatre!!!!! In celebration of his arrival the adults, kids and toddles/baby’s danced (well jumped and span) and howled with joy!

A question for Paris “What did you think of the show Dusk?”
“ I HATE the name because it doesn’t match any bit any bit of the film or the acting! Well the only thing I liked about the show was the……

TAILS!!!!!!!!! Paris replied.

The following 5 photographs were taken before, during and after the theatre visit. They were chosen as evidence of the theatre visit and that we took part in the interactive elements of the performance, including having our faces painted and wearing tails.




Log Entry 4
Critical reflections on theatre visits
Theatre Event: Afro Vibes
Date: 13 to 18 October


This entry and the next one are in relation to the Afro Vibes Theatre Festival. I went to two different plays in the festival, Rhetorical and Rainbow Scars.
Play: Rhetorical
Date: 16 October

+ When I entered the theatre schoolchildren class was in the audience sitting in the front seats.
• Nelson Mandela president of South Africa.
+ Videos show of dedication to Nelson Mandela, when the race is one it would succeed in our own.
+ Act to come out dancing- stage set up books are on the floor and at actor is looking at the books, speaking in his own language.
• Very funny- big dodder – story telling, poetic- academic disclosure- doing- thinking- music used- after the actor picks up the books with excellent knowledge of what all the books are.
• Actress on stage talking about Mandela intentions- talking about Mandela’s, knees- regimes- white main trees- people- moving peacefully.
+ Spotlight on actor giving spectacular speech- other actor enters both fighting for the microphone.
+ Speech- background people marching. Then come on stage march in with revrum – showing protection on back of stream– singing BV it should be rich, rich, rich in rehearsals—
+ actors talking- about new South Africa- actors on my talking about the people of Africa- stories- poverty – shame.
+ Consideration of each actor.
+ Actors carrying- box- tips- house- on back- fire- no electricity- house made out of iron- house burnt down- woman washing clothes.
• Homelessness- lost every think- for the second time- stressed out- doesn’t want poverties show- struggle- life.
+ Vote for change. One actor- in spotlight other in background.
+ Eight children from different men and don’t get support from government and sister children. Her sister died- one Bros Child mental illness- brother- grandmother- 23 moth to feed and only one pension- and child great teenager problematic.
+ Going through names in native tongue- talking about poverty at the blink- gods forgot- being condemned for caring for baby
• showed video- Hitler world war two- showed a Abraham Lincoln- I had a dream that whites and blacks can socialise.
+ Winston Churchill all World War II Prime Minister- politics- country- two nations- politicise
+ made movement funny- free actors are running- guns- shooting- using dancing- with guns in hand- dancing- fun.
+ Re-force- who- more- powerful use music.
+ Beating women – pregnant-taking them away- drugs all about money -many of us-work-gangs-terror rise-24 seven -every thousand crimes each one crime. There are only 77 convictions.
+ Cat like wild tiger-jalwa is a car— laugh -pointing the gun to the audience gun delay time made it very funny.
+ Two actors speaking over one another’s dialogue-music used- my baby don’t care-dancing- flirting- fun- funny.
+ Actor Doctor very sincere- but very funny- use miming- accompanied by sad music.
+ From rags to riches got job- dance workmen with River McCall sound.
+ Woman walks on stage slender dance tango with actor music used Roxsam – very funny audience loved it.
+ Actor workmen were seduced by actress that was dancing actor workmen went home to wife. He danced with his wife.
+ Act to claim workmen was sick- used red scar as a symbol of blood- s sickness – Aids – message scafe represented sickness- Dr examined workmen- Dr use sign of the cross- no hope- died.
+ Death- angel of death- carried workmen’s body off- Dr- dispenser of death= HIV AIDS- giving messages to get rid of- terrace tests- aids found- HIV-positive- must be shipped to the death camp- exterminated- mad Dr
+ war- fighting- Parliament politics- play fighting, very funny.
• Sure of two actors ending scene washing music- are they Maria in the background.
+ Two women actors speaking over each other protest on projections.

+ Actors enter singing and dancing. One actor telling the story and the other one dancing, making it very funny- singing just brings my machine gun.
• Actors use different scarfs and hats to resemble different characters- tribes feeling what they do traumatic experience- music
+ Questions and answers
Feeling human- associated a lot in similar allegations they counted the internal that brought it example balm president because of money situations.
+ Books scattered around- class highlighted some of the things education within urban cultures, no identification- finds it.
+ Look like it mainly covered urban a lot was left out of the play format. Full magically on speeches many different adaptions with in the play, depending on where it was performed.
+ By tape the consumption of it was funny- linked the whole thing together- find a way to keep it fresh.
+ Looks for research on character and use on different abstracts
+ originated from the piece. This had been performed in South Africa, but what different is it bred Brinley one’s again worked very much, but don’t like that.
+ Answer two questions from director performed shows in Africa first did it in market theatre, John Runge barge they loved all the ways and they understood more of the and stereotypes when it went to France. They didn’t know who the characters was and it was a gamble to put on the performance as the risk was to show new audiences as they had no experience of African culture and the characters which was played with in this theatre piece.

Log Entry 5
Critical reflections on theatre visits
Theatre Event: Afro Vibes
Date: 13 to 18 October

Play: Rainbow Scars
Date: 17 October

+Stage set- sofa table 1 chair with actors standing on it, holding a pose changing arm movement.
+ African culture-mother and daughter-light changes goes on to one actor the other actor talking to a teacher-very good dialogue like another person is there.
+ Funny mum and daughter online looking at men rainbow Nations.
+ Other actors standing on chair doing arm movements.
+ Mother black children adoption-support group daughter is black and mother is white rainbow stories
+ talking to judge about bowel to get out.
+ Segregation passport control raises the issue about mother and daughter actress comments stick it up your fat ass -very funny as it came from a white middle-class actres
+ actress using stripping sounds good drama emphasis.
+ Main actor very good- extremely clear cultures use their blackness when applying for university.
+ Corruption paid someone paid cops money.
+ Actors on witness stand, giving character reference for husband.
+ Class money –identity- division- between- mum upper-class.
+ Some humorous moments backing house- crimes- 80%.
+ Spoke in native tongue.
+ Different models beliefs because of different culture backgrounds.
+ Good emotional content in right places.
+ Giving story of what happened using hand with movement through voice and movement together very effective.
+ Dance movement to express anger through actors.
+ South Africa works of the rich and not for the poor.
+ Very dominant- now actor got shot and killed tragically ended life goes on in rainbows stories
Below are two photos of the theatre progamme for the Afro Vibes Festival.

Log Entry 6
Critical reflection on theatre visit
Play: Mandela
Date: 17 October
• They used blackboards on the stage against a circular chairs around the edge of the stage- on the boards were written- the future-marries-politics- school- passions- there was too blank boards what was the blank balls for I was thinking?
+ The stage setting- very interesting the setting of the stage very basic, but the chairs were set up around the back and at the sides of the stage and at the back there was a drum.
+ The youth theatre was introduced – the opening scene was a group of two different young actors and actresses. There was a set of boys and a set of girls. The Girls behaviour and the way they moved were like a boy, the gills at attitude of the boys and the boy’s behaviour was like the girls so they swapped roles.
• The young actors made contact eye contact with the audience the boys were encouraging one of the boys actors to to communicate with the gale actor and the girls were encouraging one of the gills actors to communicate one of the boys.
+ The all the actors were females there were eight actresses on stage. They were singing, but also writing on the black couple’s text talking and giving directions of a clue they are within the planning of the story. They had a map on the floor which represented different continents different parts of the country.
+ These were the different parts of the country is named 1-graaffrenet-2 matatleie. 3 mhatha. 4 East Cape . 5 grahams town. 6 . Port Elizabeth . 7 East London.
• Giving stories of different things linking what they are and talking about parent’s dad’s etc.
• sitting on chairs all the actors focuses on one act two at the time they were facing the front.
+ Story of parents and happenings- stick patient- despair- sadness- eight then a workshops- within the performance testimonies of life stories- reality contents- song- reality songs the whole’s apart must come down to Africa will be saved- singing in African language.
+ Two actresses- political- medical stories of HIV-positive with in the emotional content with in the story.
+ On the back of the chairs, said- if you could go back in time- emotional content good way to draw the audience attention.
+ Acting with rap- using the chairs as a class school set up stories with song about having another chance and the group of actresses was singing together unitedly
+ Religions content opposing about religion, and religious groups- one actress was being opposed with conflict.
+ Humour part funny- born again Christian – with opposing views- using for S when changing sentimental and sad- testimonies- brother died.
+ It buying the audience into the performance with the emotional content element of very strong focus on the storytellers
+ Singing with a motion or content links to testimonies and strong united team work.
+ Politics within Africa- joking about politicians.
+ Change in South Africa government- no libraries.
+ Use of props changing chairs using space within the song they sang- men, their act like boys joke 9 mm shouts mammal’s name.
+ Changed frame steel frame- using drum playing sports.

+ The performance of HIV-positive- they use dance, grammar and house- beaver boy reggae -verge
+ Song Africa cultural can care with dance—
+ -future– all individuals same what they wanted to be .
+ Singing on earth when you have a new child-song I am we are closer-good way of using singing and real testimonies.
This show showed reduces of song and real live testimonies showed stories of South African women giving their testimonies through poetry, song and acting
Log Entry 7
Critical reflection on introductory day
Topic: Introduction to the Autumn Term
Date: 22 September
First day
The First day at University 22nd of the September 2014 introduction

• We did role-play.
• Dr Amanda Breed, reader
• Dr Dominic hingorani, senior lecturer- directing acting.
• Eve katsouraki, senior lecturer familiar to find a way of thinking how? Thought thinking we form installation- film- live art- how do more with Text- writing post beneath of Protonix theatre- how change.

• George lope Ramos lecture put in performance on everywhere. What will we invite audience to do- September until December- gaming- shifting?

+ Clare qualmann, lecture fine artists- use art to work with different backgrounds- visual- effects in experience- walking- Art network- part-time – use experience.

+ Dr Lewis Sotelo, senior lecturer, Ph.D. flourishing- theatre- performance- site-specific- Shoemaker- predictive spaces- engaging different communities.
• Sheila Preston head of subject.

+ Switch to BA drama applied theatre and performance.

+ Monday 10 to 1 room US 30N

+ Tuesday 10 to 5 for three weeks.

+ Wednesday 10 to 1

+ January 2015 next semester 10 to 1, Docklands campus.
+ 5-7 of May 2015 massive aveni time migraine program manmivni why are doing events.

• Essay very important to be handed in in January 2015 2000 words for essay, end of term to performances that will cover through the sessions with community engagement.

+ Got to look at Moodle.

• Time management.
+ Personal tutorials
+ tallying modules.
+ Past all the modules already in rolled.
+ Module level V for this year.
+ Provisional framework had six new modules 20 credits and 30 credits less assignments- more time to engage.
• Four modules, many of them cross over.
+ Finished end of April.
+ One of the assignments 12th of May portfolio.
+ Stephane work within the community.
+ 25 hours home work on my own.
+ Workshop activity better assessments- flourish- work process stop.
+ Performance of presentations.
+ Portfolio- blog
+ get feedback, a S a P
+ surmise of these assessments 20 working days.
+ Making use of tutor hours.
+ Who is my personal tutor?
+ Need to meet with tutor.
+ Six weeks meetings.
+ 20 of October Chinese whisper Clare qualmann
+ 23rd of October-26 of October what’s happening with the young.
+ 6 November economics of experience, Trinity buoy wharf 11 AM to 5 PM George Ramos.
• Work with non-existent work November 5- November 19- December 3 to 17th.
+ Office hours. Fernando Breed Monday.
29th of the ninth 2014 Mandy classroom PA 501 politics of performance and memory.

+ Name exercises.
+ Personal testimonies. How do stories replay to testimonies?
• Finding my own point.
+ conjure dripped with this shape in the play.
+ Everything, Moodle.
+ Link to my account
+ Mod descriptions.
+ Summary for workshop.
+ Next week basic thing attendance- some nonsense what happens to ask?
+ Second week stories about children are kidnapped- disappeared- someone who is not there.
+ Two basic readings to put all the structure together.
• Mass write what you don’t understand rehearsal groups of 4.
+ How do you find the argument of the point?
+ Read two basic readings. Read more material.
+ Section 3 shall thought through the story- bring objective personality- put together calculate practices.
+ Section 4 politics of memory activism and the transformation of trauma by being festive showing of streets- stages- rehearsing to sequence of involvement of the Argentina environment –question – what are you fighting for? Escrache own words, what’s the country came up with
• section 5 research on different conflicts- which would be my own museum, which would be for me- 911 How created Museum- trauma World War II+ how can you create something new.
+ Whose story can be special, wasn’t there but I can’t tell,
+ week 11 portfolio review and memory and active over two terms Jews semester A then semester B Bethnal Green World War II.
+ Sweater 20th Thursday Hackney Empire.
Performance sent- performance to- going global- Eve portfolio praise each week. Summary and analysing of work- blog- conclusion- write about workshops-
+ section 3. Every movements day -re-evaluation-learn what done-Word press– set key areas-look at melodrama room is there- pimply oh settings-think how some of the work can be used for showcase as development of professionals-how some of the work can be used for empathy is-some materials on practice of work .
Log Entry 8
Critical reflection on class notes and readings
Topic: Archives and Ontology of Performance
Date: 6 October
Lecturer: Cecilia Sosa
This entry links the Archives and Ontology of Performance session from the Politics of Memory class because it has relevance and you can use it in Applied Theatre within the context of the subject matter.
Reading is vital because it helps one to familiarise themselves with vocabulary. It also enables the one to be more aware of their own work both on stage and off stage hence being more reflective of own practice.
• Consider practical vs theoretical side.
• Ask yourself what’s being portrayed, why the writing? Etc.
Performance and disappearance: The art of the present/always at the vanishing point.
Article 1: Matthew Reason’s ‘Archive or Memory?’
Brief summary of Group 1’s presentation – New type of archive i.e. written and recorded. There is a connection between them and how you can relate to it. Disappearance of the performers’ work for instance remembering their performance.
Question to ponder: What happens in the moment of live theatre?
‘Theatre not the art of the present.’
Reviews might not necessarily depict the objective opinions but a partial review of events.
Group 2 – physical objects and memories. Live performances can be watched, may be about the experience of it. Reason combines the two because he’s on neither side of the argument. Points out both memory and archives are selective by existence e.g. ticket staff, programmer etc. He presents both pros and cons and decides that neither is superior. Can you get the same/full experience again? Live performance originality can’t be replicated?
Artists and live performance: Barba considers theatre to be the art of the present. Preserving their performance’s i.e artists but scholars were. Desiring to relive the experience.
Note: Legacy is very vital for every artist and that all should endeavour to preserve it.
– Point raised on archives and bodies by a student: Bodies can become the archive. For example ballet performances might always replicate each other.
The objectivity of the archive – Would it be parallel to memory? A source of shared or collected memory? Is there a memory of the audience? Keeping the memory of the audience alive.
It is crucial to consider both memory and performance in relation to archive. The idea that we are witnessing the power of transformation, the body to body transmission.
• Re-creating the story when we present articles we have read or experiences we have lived. However, it is almost impossible to replicate the experience.

New performance therefore, involves the memory of the previous performance. Where history and past goes into the future, changing perspective of someone’s memory
• What value would you attach to archive?
• Archive is as important as someone that wants to view it.
Rebecca Schneider: She supposes that performance remains.
‘Archives can be sold/bought for a price yet memory can’t.’
There appears to be more development and creativity within memory and archives
Remark: Who makes the choice to include a particular part of an archive? Start to lose small details of performance and if even just little bits are lost, one might never actually get to grasp the whole detail of the performance.
Archive needed to develop or change???
Are we all allowed to create archive or is it just for a few people??
Performance provides us with perspective into worlds.
‘Logic of the archive’ – performance challenges the logic of the archives.
Performance as memory – Performance is more about the re-emergence of something. Creating something new out of the articles for example. The body as collective memory or counter memory, embodied acts and performance.

Carolina Golder presentation: She said; that it’s “easier to organise demonstrations in Buenos Aires than in London.”
Log Entry 9
Critical reflection on first year lecture
Topic: Devising your own piece
Date: 30 September 2013

This entry links the session on devising your own work from the first year, reflecting on how you create your own work and what makes it interesting, because it has relevance to Applied Theatre and how you make that work as a practitioner
Log 30 of September 2013

week 1
I sat and observed all the different pieces of work. The students had shown they were in 4 or five different groups approximately, the most memorable of the pieces of work that I saw was the monkey piece and the voice structure and the diversity of the peace standing out the most. And it was very interesting the way the Monkeys with in the peace became soldiers. The visual aspect of it was very apparent and very interesting to watch and then once what once I watched the 4 or 5 pieces of work from the different groups. We sat and discuss for each piece with different aspects of what it meant for us as an audience and how could you bring it up to another level and change the diversity of what was going on.
Then the tutor put me in one of the groups by my surprise I was put in the group that I like the most. The monkey group.
What is performance.
What does he say performances?
Must pick out and use it in essays
What is my opinion?
Doing the activity.
Group chapter.
Mede, look at an s system. You can train the body.
All ways. New consensus, Meyer holds by Maheks
We can step into some movement.
We can compere on what they were seeing, was a story and the malice of it.
The possibility are endless.
Unless of what performance can do.
Knowingly and un-knowingly.
2. Game
Tambour drum de= of copula= mixed race.
Pougue arrived 1500s in the West after slavery blamed one another.
Because capoeira helped the slaves to become strong with in their self and physical self-confidence. This helped them to develop ideas with in the mind to be able to be strong enough mentally and physically to escape slavery.
Hober capoeira is used for actors.
Songs and rhythms- men- big drums- women-shirk.
Jonjo-before samba-rota – health-stories- system.
Remember the repeating coming from one beginning section.
Leave work with more questions.
How can the feed of the pre-series become more and more?
How do you appreciate it?
Neglo= from the zebra.
Hotel medal performance with in theatre.
Prices = it is not about application, giving similarities mainly about saying what’s happening with the texts stop.
What is the author saying?
If it key to deal author and why?
Words= the author, that, find academic farming.
Read once, read again and take out the key points you need.
Read again. Then take out notes for example, singing, dancing.
What does the peace? Give me to help me to a shortcut to be able to construct my essay.
No quoting.
Line of the auteur and use theories them include them within the essay will stop.
No add bibliography in Journal. Are you are you are an area so you are in an
A portfolio journal is personal.
One exercise this week, create a piece on, the exercises we did in class with in the group.
Tasks, personalise from capoeira or pick one element and find a way of exploring, how you personalise your space, take the remnants meaning the essence of capoeira, isolating- elements- import- reform.
Use music to movement, not what the tutor was using.
Make this your own work and proceed to make changes.
Morning exercises.
In the morning we do a number of different exercises with a ball using arms and legs and spine moving the ball around different parts of the body to help you explore your body and become aware of the relationship between you and the ball, also giving your body mass large and stimulation making you explore and understand your complexes of your body more.
We did our monkey piece performed it to the group, and then we will put in group a stop.
We got feedback stop.
Must slow down stop.
What we are doing, and how this changes the peace,
The timing of the peace, think about how the monkeys are sounding.
How I use the prop, stick with in the peace, the characteristics of the character, notice the re-action of the audience on what’s happening when I am delivering the characteristics of the peace.
Use layering to build up the sound structure example to make it louder or may be softer.
How can you bring the balance from staring alongside building up different elements, need to experiment with timing and the level of sound quantity.
Needed concentration when constructing the audience as within part of the peace. The audience did not see what was going on. They only heard what was happening.
How can you calculate the power and element may be making sound softer play with the words?
Think how you can make it more in suspense, possibly putting the pieces paper that the audience were reading with in envelopes, which brings a different element of suspense, then the audience would have to open the envelopes before reading the instructions.
The suspense from the audience point of view, facing away, and what is going to happen next.
Performance on what we have done within my group, bring this more in, fresh, clear big movements awareness of space stop.
Stick game.
In pairs work together using stick, 1 need to keep eye contact 2 spell was stick 3 halt stick with one finger, 4 change levels of where you put the stick higher low 5 feel the tension when holding stick with in the game, 6, when you get confident do more and take risks. 8 work on stick game more.
Cat and mouse game, one went in groups of three people, 1 One mouse in the groups of three. 3) And you need to link on to one of the groups then the person on the end leaves and becomes the mouse.
Log Entry 10
Critical reflection on class notes
Topic: Facilitators working within the arts as practitioners
Date: 30 September
Lecturer: Ananda Breed
Notes written on the white paper:

Module intentions:
Train as facilitators, arts practitioners etc. This might be in a school, hospital or to create specific projects. Within the next three weeks, we will have intense training on what facilitation and techniques required might be like. A discussion of the theoretical mixed with practice for the rest of the module. Guest speakers, practical exercises will be involved.
Between weeks please do a bit of homework, become familiar with bits of exercises for instance, acting.
Foreign theatre – spectators become actors to find solutions to the problem.

What they are doing:
Begin by opening the space. Worked in Rwanda and she’s shown the warm-up from other cultures. Creates inclusivity and sensitivity from what others in the room might be doing.
Recital of the Rwandese recital, shown the physicality of the routine.
The move: – right turn, lift leg, skip a bit up and down, turn round as they sing the routine.
More energy than anyone in the room as facilitators is vital.
Notice the effect to the group: bodies moving, different levels of energy.
Trainer hat: where the exercise would be important – make group relax and give room to create a comfortable environment. Facilitate unity within the group, create a can-do attitude within the group. Be conscious of where the voices are coming from as a facilitator and therefore devise ways to encourage all to participate.
– Monitor your own participation especially as a trainer.
Questions to ponder:
How theatre can be used to create tolerance in areas of conflict.
How to use theatre to change policy.
What the facilitator has to consider:
Can use name games to help remember the names of individuals in the group.
Space: It is very important and the facilitator needs to make sure it is organised when the group walks in. Familiarise yourself with the space, try and mark it in your memory. What does it feel like? Walk to an area that you don’t seem to like. Something about that area that you don’t like. What don’t you like about that space?
What would you as a facilitator do about the unwanted space or what the reasons that the members are saying? Did anyone have a problem with the space until it got pointed out?
Moving through the space, try to notice the things or areas you like in it….
Through the space filling the gaps, mindful of what’s happening around you. How can you use your body to fill the space?
Participatory theatre:
What is it?
– The audience and actors communicating with one another through questions and answers i.e. common learning.
– An application to everyday life.
– Working together
– Audience seen as a co-participant.
– Role as an audience member. Being part of what’s going on than be passive.
– Used to create equality, community.
– How to enhance the trust within the group/participants is really important.
Note: the facilitator offers guidance to the project. However, on the onset, it might not be easy to know where you are going. Alter your reactions, improvise, have a deeper awareness of what needs to be done. (Give/take in adaptations).
• Setting ground rules of expectations during time on module.

Please see Moodle for details on subsequent weeks’ lecture plans.
Week 1:
Focus on interactive performance techniques
As students will begin to develop a toolbox that will enable you to become good facilitators. This could be vital in various areas for example; business, schools. The skills are transferable. Think how the methodologies can be applied.
Week 2:
Applied theatre training.
Session will allow for practice image theatre. Note that, from 5-6, next week, there will be a performance cabaret.
Week 3:
Presenting mini workshops, working in facilitating teams. Developing a toolbox, training yourself as a facilitator.
Belgrade Theatre Company, Big Brum, age exchange and Greenwich and Lewisham young people theatre.
Week 5: Theatre for young audiences
Working with various practitioners
Recommended theatre visits
– Dusk; Stratford circus.
Week 6: Theatre and Development
The term theatre for development – historical context is in development practices. In poorer countries, it’s primarily for development purposes. It is more often than not, explained in an international context.
 Suggested readings are in the module guide.
 Essay will be due in week 11.
Formative and summative assessments.
For purposes of the essay, ask yourself, what area of theatre excites you? For example, theatre and refugees, theatre in prison, theatre in school etc.
See; Mark Storer, practitioner and visual artist.

Log Entry 11
Critical reflection on class notes
Topic: Techniques for using games and group participation
Date: 7 October
Lecturer: Ananda Breed
Bullet points on white sheet:
Three Image story
Fluid sculptures
Commedia characters
Story circle
Forum theatre diagram
5 freeze frames
Curriculum workshops

Class was asked to work in small groups to discuss the reading.
Brief group discussions of readings
Applied performance – embodies the aspect of being current and in the face of audiences and sharing interests with the public life. Uses so much more of the audience’s reaction and communal stories. It depends on the audience a lot of the time.
Looked at how applied drama pulls in lots of different areas. Barba had no one set definition. Had a similar point of view but relied on other people’s ideas, key performances. Practitioners as producers, not only a person but as a group too. Focus more on processes. It is like an umbrella in terms of range of processes e.g. medicine, drama therapy, education, foreign theatre etc (applied drama and applied performance.
Note: Consider the application of drama and performance.

John Littleworth looks at how communities interact for instance like the social aspect, and how drama and performance can be used as a reflection.
Making awareness can be pulled in the aspects of people’s way of living – people’s consciences.
Applied theatre: It is a knowledge gaining process for participants, is provocative, works with ideas of education, applied theatre etc. Theatre and drama can be intent to the founding precepts of drama and theatre.
– Gives freedom to the participants.
– The needs of whatever community it’s applied to.
– Having a scope of who’s involved. How do we apply the practices.
Applied performance vs drama and theatre.
Performance practices as education, social. The author uses the term applied as connection of the ideas. It goes into contemporary applications of performances. Contemporary performance like specific performance.
What would you consider as contemporary performance practices?
Write your briefs in terms of each article. There are a lot of debates that arise so it is crucial to know what the debates are. Applied performance vs applied drama.

Do a thorough reading of the two aspects – Applied performance vs applied drama
Applied theatre performance
• Collective identities
• Benefit societies and communities
• Therapy
• Social
• Educational
• Place of learning
• Educational
• Audience interaction
• Experiencing yourself
• Audience interaction

Playback theatre:
Note: Get into curriculum groups and next week deliver workshops.

Brief activity of learning each other’s name. Saluting each other while telling names
Active listening and about telling stories (big part of playback theatre).
Prerequisites of telling your story
– Have someone
– Be comfortable
– Be interesting
Be engaging to connect. For connection to happen you need the eye contact, show with body that you are listening, give your all i.e. your concentration. It is about acceptance, being totally comfortable and confident (totally available). It requires trust. Trust exercise:
Driver technique – Ananda directed Ben along – right shoulder tap, turns to the right, left shoulder turns to the left, back is reverse, head tap is forward movement. This was replicated by entire class. ‘cars’ asked to close their eyes and the ‘drivers’ led them around the theatre.

Sensations/discussions of trust exercise:
Felt weird, thought she would hit a wall. That something was right there.
Awareness of the surrounding action.
Teamwork effects – more comfy as a car or driver?
Struggling with self not to trip ‘don’t have good balance.’ Have to trust yourself first.
Totally letting go feeling
Like being led.
Trust between drivers and other drivers in the room. Awareness and trust between them.

Listening – telling a story in 3 images. Could be metaphoric rather than real.
Sad, happy etc.
Create 1st, 2nd and 3rd image.
Your demo of listening is thru the images u create.

Listener stands up after convo in front of the teller. Make eye contact

1st image at the count of 3.

2nd image at count of 3
3rd image at count of 3

Listener stands up after convo, makes eye contact.
1st image at the count of 3.

2nd image at count of 3
3rd image at count of 3

Now discussing the images and stories told in the pairs…

3-4 performers
Conductor and teller.
Plays between the audience and performers is called a conductor in playback.
Performers to listen deeply as in paired conversations.
What are the tellers communicating? In gesture, emotion etc. after teller shares story, queue will be ‘let’s watch…’ listen to what someone else is sharing and build into that image.
Angie tells high school story. Engagement with danger
Shouts out: ‘evacuate class fire go repeatedly.’
2nd teller comes up – narrates story about course change.
– ‘have to get out.’ Actors; ‘eve can u help me please.’ Other; ‘much better.’
3rd teller shares story – narrates story on picking money
– acts out rain pissing down, others; mom I found money, counts it…
4th teller shares story – travel and holiday story over the summer holidays.
Conductor’s body language turned away from Ben but it should be otherwise.
5th teller shares story – Ghana holiday experience.
Waking up still on how to use ‘our’ bodies.
Recondition actor and story teller
Going for the nuggets of the story. Listening to one another and not having a preconceived emotion.
Sharing responsibility, taking their turn, mirroring back emotion.
Pay attention to one or more actors i.e. peripheral vision of events.
How would you apply this?
Drama therapy – NYU
Playback theatre got a lot of books you can reference.
International playback groups.
Working with younger children. Used around bullying in primary school in NY.
Creating a space, in theatre in prison. Stories that create meaning.
Playback theatre in church – tell a moment from your life, testimony etc.
Starts to connect people’s stories but not so much educational.
Activity after lunch break:
Walking around the room in a circle, pulling chest forward, hips leaning, chin forward, backward, back to chest, back to forehead.
NOTE: Please double check the spellings below.
Caputano – Lifting legs forward like it’s a heavy match
Pantelone – man or woman holding a money belt. Pulling stunts to show this move.
Anamorata (lovers); stunts of lovers
Zani; pulling stunts of an ogre…
Prigele (cuts through like a knife), slides…
Bride kidnapping in Kazakhstan: 50% …however now there’s a lot of sensitisation against such practice. There’s a need to understand the origins of such traditions.
Legend read out about Kazakhstan – about a girl that had been asked for hand in marriage but continually refused, until one day she was kidnapped etc. (groups created to discuss legend and asked to act it out).
Clear story lines with images
Young audience getting the story
Protagonist and antagonist – foreign theatre used in different ways by practitioners; street for non-theatre goers. Commedia in foreign theatre.
Landlord as an example of commedia character
The miser; one who never really has enough money.
Putting together a storyline that ends in tragedy. One time through without stopping through the point of crisis.

Creating foreign theatre models:
Use your own stories to create a foreign theatre model. Share a moment where you felt oppressed.
Think of circumstances of that situation. Practice in your circles the same foreign theatre…
Note: In foreign theatre model: Story selected becomes the selective story that is used or developed by the group.
How can protagonists in the group can be changed? Think about allies…
Counter actions to the stories that have been told in order to get back to our normal selves…
Running about as someone sings, then taps someone.
Class asked to lie down, put heads on each other’s stomach… Random activities in trios with transitions into several routines.
Foreign theatre on protagonist (focus is). It always ends with a crisis. Protagonist doesn’t always achieve their goal. Both the pro and ant haven’t allies. This model the goal could be to become a gymnast or athlete for example. There are challenges that might inhibit the person. A name has been chosen for example; Nicky goes gym, a lot of positive reinforcement, has been selected to be top girl in activities yet at home, there isn’t much support. There could be a variety of reasons for instance; luck of money. Friends, schools or has to do a lot of chores at home, school is beginning to fail, and then Vicky probably begins to miss classes. Consequently, might fail to achieve her maximum potential e.g. sexism, hostility at home. The model is created trying to understand why these have happended.
Now she fails to join the team…so why??? – Who therefore might be inhibiting her achievement?
Allies could be (spectator, spectactor). Think of possible allies that might support her situation. What could therefore happen at each level???
Asked to act out their chosen stories.
Group 1: Acts out the gay student’s story.
Subtle poses of gay couple.
Name calling on the street
Discussing and rehearsing out the routine developed from the story in various scenes.
1. High-street
2. Workplace
3. ……
4. Senior manager
5. ……
Group notes on gay story:
Fellow worker
Police – high street
HR Rep
Tolerance goal:
Lack of support
Violence action
Upper mgt
Losing jobs
Attitude/rebellion to authotirty
Work promotion to manager
Closest community coz of reaction
Intervention/not happening
Name calling
Dialogue, develop characterisation, create characteristics – rehearse rthat over the next week.
Rehearse play in own work groups.

Log Entry 12
Critical reflection on class notes
Topic: Theatre and education – the transformation of education and how drama has contributed to the education system.
Date: 21 October
Guest Lecture
Introduction from group presentation and of the lecturer too.
Today –
Theatre and education
Drama and education
There’s a lot of other practice happening elsewhere in spite of the fact that it is more UK based.
How will it influence my practice?
Look at education philosopher Paulo Freire – a look at some of his theories and try to relate them to how they influence practice. How does this affect you and how you articulate it to yourself?
Book: Pedagogy of the oppressed.
Every human had the ability to critically engage with the world. Quite visionary with how people saw learning. Influenced applied theatre, theatre in education movements, education in theatre etc.
Critiquing existing forms of education and proposed learner centred strategies political in a sense where individuals would become active in changing their world.
Look at his critique and consider how we might use it to change our view of education. His banking system of education
He advised a transformative form of education – teacher/pupil contribution of education. Find ways of resolving the issue where pupils see themselves as knowing nothing and the teacher knows all. Allow for a co-existence and the teacher should possess a ‘humble’ approach to passing on knowledge. There’s a possibility of contradiction, therefore it’s vital that they allow the teacher to come down to their level rather than have a receiver expectation.
If you’re giving the pupils power it’s important that you don’t give them everything at once.
Brunner – suggests that one is capable of teaching any subject at any level.
Oppressor/oppressed relationship – liberation or change should come from the oppressed. People need to realise the injustice of their circumstances.
Phillip Zimbardo – Book: Why do people turn evil?
Naming the world – realisation of who I’m and how this affects one’s relation to everything around them.
Through dialogue, one can have the opportunity to learn and improve on what they know. The process would involve the idea of problem posing.
Praxis- how you do and think about what you do. (The action and reflection).

Drama stuff:
Key players in Drama and education – Brian Way, Peter Slade, Dorothy Heathcote, Gavin Bolton
Drama could help us understand our world and the actions of the humans in it.
Dorothy saw a situation where child takes on the role of an expert. Create a situation where the child is in charge. Against the idea of drama lessons but it world happen through
Hywel Roberts – Book: Oops! Helping children learn accidentally.
Metaxis – real & fictions.
Awareness of ‘this is happening to me now,’ or ‘I’m making this happen.’ Simultaneously being in two worlds at the same time. How do you then create an environment where this happens?
Process drama – is more of structured improvisation where there’s a joint agreement to do things in an imaginary world.
Drama is’ a man in a mess’ according to Dorothy Heathcote.
Dorothy Heathcote –
Yorkshire mill
Lecturer in Newcastle

In the video, apparently the kids seemed to have forgotten she was coming. She starts by getting their attention and making sure she holds it since she’s the captain of the ship trick.
Empowering the kids – giving them room to use their ideas. See their ideas come into marvelous action.
Let me take you there to the prison camp. Standard rifles (arrest their attention).
Take a role that helps to grasp their mind/attention.
Use situations that authors use (not water down drama).
Drama is a real mind of mess.
Build your background
Intensity of feeling not facts. As long as the man in the room believed it, that’s what matters. If the other group is feeling then a mistake might not be noticed or might not be an issue.
Take a little time for the children to realize that they were actually the ones talking. Want to do it without even them having it. Trying to build up profile.
She puts prompts out there, quite spontaneous and tries not to influence or structure what happens.
Go different ways into drama for instance; low status or expert. But it draws down to whether or not you are willing to take the risk with this.
Fundamental human questions or themes within the drama. Obviously when you go into a situation and are starting from scratch.
Log Entry 13
Critical reflection on class notes, readings, independent research and theatre visits
Topic: Theatre for young audiences
Date: 28 October
Lecturer: Dominic Hingorani
Theatre for young audiences.
Activity – share games you played in the playground. What imaginative games did you play in the house?
Aisha – introduces the guest lecturer and day’s activities to the class.
Remember what it was like to be a certain age i.e. 5, 6 or 7 years old.
Interest in the childhood games – having fun, a lot of talking among adults.
Think to yourself, what games you liked to play when you were younger. Play the game out without talking, change it if you get bored.
– Felt embarrassed playing like a kid
– Reminiscent of childhood lifestyle and activity
Children tend to be quite creative. They got several ideas of games. They can easily change game as soon as they get bored. In contrast, adults tend to insist on same thing trying to make it work no matter what.
What might you expect if you went to see a show for children?
– Colours i.e. colourful costumes
– High energy so they don’t lose concentration i.e. audience interaction
Post war political landscape (please see brief notes on Moodle).
How politics affects the way in which performance works.
TYA and TIE – see; Caines, M (2013)

TYA good?
Critic the work and gauge whether this is good or not.

Fevered Sleep (1996)
David Harrdine and Sam Butler in their work highlight that relationship with target audience, notion of integrity with the work is important.

Critic the video and consider things you reckon to be noteworthy:

Have a read through the review and see where you agree, disagree or missed.

Expectations – was it what you were expecting?


– Idea of the forest was too literal. Children tend to have a lot of energy when they play. Appeared to be over rehearsed. However, there seemed to have room for development and imagination for children to think.
– More activity or imaginative games to play in the forest. Rather the video seemed limited in the activities or imagination kids might have.

After break session:
Johnny takes class in warm-up activity before Dominic takes over.

Puppetry – Dominic asked class to get their jackets/coats (puppets) out. Asked to let it fall to the ground and then balance it up and down. Make sure you are comfy. Find a nice little space in the room, be far from the object as far as possible. Object stays still, now move back and forth etc.

Key things you have to do in order for it to work:
– Focus on puppet. This helps to increase concentration
– Believe that what you’re using is what it is. That it is actually a puppet.
Why coats/jackets to play out puppet?
– Easy to use.
– Easy to access since a lot of people have coats. ‘Kids have coats.’
– Easier to personify it as a character.

Log Entry 14
Critical reflection on class notes
Topic: Theatre for development and working within the community.
Date: 4 November
Lecturer: Sheila Preston
Summary of article on theatre for development – Where do we position ourselves when we go out to work in communities?
Eurocentric point of view questioned in this theatre for development. This is easy to create bias and obscure opinions.
Note: Educating, inform, raise awareness does entail something challenging and problematic
Dominant idea of development – has it aligned itself or challenged itself from the norm (theatre for development)?
Development’s relevance: has a binary perception to it i.e. developed and underdeveloped.
– Bringing about social change, changing things for better.
– Offering new ways of doing things so that these things might happen.
Development has more relevance (or favours) for the upper middle class than the normal working class people.
Mda: (1992) – development aims to bring about social change to improve people’s living standards.
In pursuing developmental projects, it could be inferred that there’s an Economic agenda.
Facilitated development. Consider the agenda of it, the measures in place to allow this to happen.
Note: development is about either better or worse.
Be aware of whose agendas you depict or embrace.
TFD is more of a modernisation approach to communicating messages from the centre to the periphery. Theatre has been used for mobilising communities and as much this isn’t necessarily a bad thing, it can be problematic to theatre companies.
Top bottom approach (exogenous) – more of an external approach and
Bottom up approach (endogenous) – coming from inside/within approach, where individuals engage in dialogue to brainstorm how processes are going to be developed. Theatre poses problems rather than provide solutions.
• What sort of theatre forms that can develop that cause problems rather than provide solutions?
• Where’s the space for action and reaction when trying to carry out change?
Freire’s theory of action –
2nd half: After break session
Energizer activity for approx. 5 minutes, a brief discussion and feedback session on the activities.
Case study: Theatre for development of Malawi. (Action theatre)
Interesting features
Bed net campaign – Preventive malaria campaign funded by UNICEF.
Insecticide treated nets (ITN slogan)
Thoughts on the video
Felt like the narrator wasn’t part of the drama.
The monotony of the woman’s voice, might just be normal to the people because they understand her totally.
What sort of drama was it? Foreign theatre or theatre in education? – Because it had an educative message, it was theatre in education.
Case study – theatre for development in Zimbabwe
Interesting perspective that was observed from the way men and women in the village related – How space and power is used.
Learning to use theatre as a communication. Through drama, plays we aim to communicate and it’s important to ponder what one is trying to portray.
If we are going to undertake a play addressing a community issue, how are we going to find out what the issue is?
We were asked to prepare for the class that will be led by Clean Break by reading from the book of Anna Herrmann (2009)
In this book Herrmann explains that the works of Clean Break should not be ‘Prison Theatre’ and also about how ‘Clean Break’ was so effective. In the first instance women were asked if they knew the meaning on ‘Clean Break’. The responses received varied among women, some said it was a safe place, where they could a second chance and start all over again, while others felt it was an alcohol free and drugs zone.
Clean Break is a company that was founded in 1979 by two female prisoners with the aim to help women realise and sustain their ambitions. They now work with women in the communities. The groups consist of women that were once prisoners, women with mental health as a result of drug or alcohol abuse and seen to be at risk. All these types of women are put together to be students who are trained in North London. Herrmann suggests this is more of community theatre.
The company also produced theatre using the women’s stories of crime and this is an annual event with the aim of challenging the audience with their perception of women and crime. The training programme involves working with women directly giving an opportunity for women to develop themselves and become professionals. The belief is that theatre is a social, personal powerful tool to develop women who have gone through criminal justice. Since the 1990s when the Training programme was established, it has grown and now meets the needs of diverse women in the dynamic world. The training programme courses include; Anger in Management, literacy and self-developing skills for life.
However, Herrmann has opinion presented by five women that had gone through ‘Clean Break’. They talked about how the programme has benefited them though they don’t include the company on their CVs so that it doesn’t reveal their past experience. Women felt the place being a ‘Safe Place’ contributed to have them in the company especially those women that experienced violent relationships. The company was also referred to as ‘mother-ship’ because the women could return if needed to.
Finally women talked about giving back to the receiver their changed roles by insipiring other women at the company.

5th November 2014
Week 6: Theatre for Development
This lecture on Applied Theatre –Theatre for Development was delivered by Sheila Preston. She asked us to do an exercise as a warm-up. We were all given numbers 1 to 4, and these numbers corresponded to different animals. She asked us to portray the animals in the best way we can and find others in class that had the same number by identifying the animal they portrayed if it matched with yours. The game was interesting and this helped to focus throughout the session.
Sheila explained that there are many categories that make up “Theatre for Development”. They are only differentiated by names like Theatre in Education. Theatre for Development (TFD) was started in at a university department and was used by middle-class students. They used theatre to understand their communities. She said the word development means progress or making something better. We had a discussion on E15mothers background when we talked about capitalism.
In the session to help us understand, Sheila talked about the quotes of “…Bringing in about social change in order to improve living standards of people” (Mda, 1992). This meant something bigger compared to capitalist development. Another quote was “…Address issues of self development by participating in theatre process” (Prenki in Eskamp, 2006). This quote means to develop those taking part not only to develop and area of space.

Sheila talked about modernisation approach to development and mentioned President Truman and that of 1949. He brought about terms of ‘underdeveloped countries’ and ‘third world’. His feeling was that poverty in the underdeveloped countries was a ‘handicap’. TFD was used as ways to communicate to messages to the target audience of the government as exogenous development. The use of visual images was effective because they felt it stayed in people’s minds longer than listening to speech.
Exogenous development includes:
 Modernised principles
 We know what’s best for you approach
 Theatre carrying messages on themes like health and literacy
This was changed in 1990s from modernisation to participation. They made people learn by doing what they were told to do than just listening. However, this was argued it was not the right way. Therefore the alternative approach was endogenous theatre which involved listening, dialogue and empowered people that participated.
At this point we had an access break. When we returned to the session,
Log Entry 15
Critical reflection on workshop
Topic: Women in prison
Date: 11 November
Guest Lecturer: Anna Herrman
Anna Herrman, Head of Education
Clean Break Organisation
Works with women prisoners
The theme of women leaving prisons.
What things should a woman be staying away from:
1. Group of bad influencing individual’s
2. Place she was hanging out
3. Stay away from isolation
Things that can protect her
1. Case worker
2. Family
3. Something to do that she is passionate about.
4. Having a purpose
5. Getting kids out of care and to be close to her
We are going to look at the play Billy the girl play.
Billy has come out of prison. Ingrid is her mother. Amber is Ingrid’s daughter.
– Billy is coming out of prison with a positive mind
– Think about what are the things that are going to help her now.
Women in prison
Women prisoners make up 50% of the UK prison population.
In 1995 – 1, 979 females in prison
In 2010- 4,267 females in prison
By 10th May 2013 – 3,893 females in prison
There are 12 prisons in England and none in Wales. Most woman entering prison serve very short sentences. However re-offending rates for short sentences are higher. Most women entering prison under a sentence (81%) have committed a non-violent offence. (Compared with 71% of men).

Clean Break believes that theatre and the arts have significant benefits in realising personal creativity. The organisation has been running for 35 years. It was founded by two women who were ex-offenders. It was founded in the 1980’s where there was a movement for women in theatre.
Four key areas of work
1. Artistic
2. Engagement
3. Education
4. Leadership
It is women only. Playwrights are written by women who conduct research in the prisons in order to create stories.
Books include:
Pests by Vivienne Franzmann
-about two young woman caught up in drug addiction. Also how they deal with these issues.
Billy the girl by Katie Hims
Dream Pill by Rebecca Prichard
Dancing Bears by Sam Holcort
To maintain the symbiotic relationship between the education and artistic programme. Progression for our graduates on our education programme.
Theatre making in prisons
It creates a changed environment. We are not part of the system, we are independent. We are a stepping stone, informal learning: it is a springboard for women to do education. A book by Chloe Moss HMP Askham Grange.
What participants say
It is the most positive experience I have ever had in jail.
Key challenges
Asking women to take risks
To be brave
Sustain change
Saying goodbye
Managing different boundaries of project and of prison.
Managing expectations
For Clean Break
Working within the confines of prison regime. Working with the system. Needing to convince others of the power and value of work.
We have a prospectus that we send out every year to prisons. We have women who come to study with us. Women only studios in North London. We work with small class sizes say 12-15 people. The first question we ask is ‘What does a clean break mean to our students?’
A Clean Break means:
Safe space
New start
Having Fun
Being understood
New beginnings

Education continued offers:
Performance courses, writing courses, personal development, moving on support.
Key challenges for women
Managing chaotic lives – attendance and retention. Keeping focused. Group work skills. Meaning and purpose. Positive shifts. Improved well-being.
Longer term outcomes for society
Reducing substance misuse.
Other companies:
Streetwise Opera and The Art Alliance
Clean Break
2 Patshull road
London NW5 2LB

Log Entry 16
Critical reflection on workshop and class notes
Topic: AIDS, Sex Education and using theatre
Date: 18 November
Lecturer: Ananda Breed

Performance from Ramira Arts Collection on behalf of Shine

Play about two young teenagers and the possible consequences of unprotected sex.
What we can learn from play
1. World Aids day is on 1st of December
2. Herpes is not curable
3. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency
4. Sperm lives in the body for 7 days

Comments after play
We try and keep politics and religion out of the play.
We want to promote Shine.
Condom demo might be the only sex education one might get in a school.
Abortion is a very delicate subject that’s why we did not go into it as much.
Wording of slang words can be different for different audiences due to different age groups.
Time always may affect what you do in our acts therefore it is important to stick to time keeping.

Writing skills
What is an introduction
Gives the reader what you are going to do and how you are going to do it. 10% of our word count consists of the introduction. Introduction should start with a key point of your essay. How you are going to do it (methodology) what kinds of theories you will be using.

Main Body
Paragraphs that are roughly equal in length. Start your paragraph with a topic sentence. Use signposting words such as however, therefore. Avoid emotive language such as outrageous, disgusting. Make your answers evidence based. Do not start your opinion.
Refer to Page 2 on handout P.E.E.L.
It’s a chance for you to give your opinion. You do not have to conclude with a final answer, you can say on one hand this or that.
Main sentence
You can use a highlighter to find the most important sentence in a paragraph. This must be at the top or near the top.
We watched the helpful advice video
Notes about what was said…
-In your essay you need to put across here’s what I looked at. Here’s the evidence. This is what others have said. Also showing that you have thought about views that have been put to you.
Ask yourself does that story make sense. Think about were the information is coming from. For example you would not take advice of lung cancer research from a tobacco company.
The flow chart of criticism
What is the writer saying?
What are the reasons behind his or her point?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the argument?
Do you agree/disagree with the argument and why?
Is the research up to date
*Look at the Flowchart of criticism handout for an exercise.

Why do we need to reference? To prove you are not stealing someone else’s evidence. When you paraphrase you need to reference. Harvard referencing is what you will use. The other type of reference is the bibliography referencing. Your bibliography is in alphabetical order according to the surname of the author.
If you are using key theorists a lot mention their name in the actual text.

Lets practice!
It is argued that “the source of added value in the digital economy is user participation.”
• This sentence has proper reference.
A recent study found that people who used Facebook frequently tended to believe that others were happier and had better lives. (Chon and Edge)
• This sentence has no dates on reference, no punctuation in text.
Hierarchical class relation… (2008, p.120)
• This sentence has no person referenced
Another study Kransnova et al. (2013) linked Facebook usage to feelings of frustration triggered by envy…
• This sentence is good as it mentioned the whole conclusion of the author.

We use a bibliography to credit authors and readers can track your sources.
Also use cite them rite online.
Annotated bibliographies
To annotate – to make notes on
• Summarize
• Evaluate
• Reflect
*** Please note Formative assessments for essays are due this week. ***

Log Entry 17
Critical reflection on workshop and class notes
Topic: Oval House, young refugees and asylum seekers and trafficking
Date: 26 November
Guest Lecturer: Stella Barnes
Stella Barnes from Oval house

Stella Barnes is the Director at Oval house.
Today we will talk about young refugees and asylum seekers. These include:
-unaccompanied minors
-May have been trafficked
-Could have been bereaved- no family
-may have seen a lot of conflict in their lives

Young people are young people first, they carry other things.
-United nations says young children have the right to play. It is a human right.

Think about the barriers to participation young asylum seekers might have in the U.K.
Be aware that you’re not in that situation.

List from Chanel of barriers young asylum seekers face
Missing their Mother
Understanding of Getting up and performing
Walking into strange/new situations
Human rights
Rights to Benefits
Communication barrier
Health issues
Emotional baggage

Exercise – Acting on the pieces of paper chosen.

group A –Who are we to say that partition theatre is good.
-The theme of choice.
– Not having a choice.

Group B-The unheard voices
A young person might have a concern about talking about themselves. There are lots of ethical questions about the lie. Being in a position of authority may affect their relationship as a project worker towards a young asylum seeker.

Also what identity do we put on asylum seekers? How they embrace their identity is another issue.
There are two groups at Oval house:
1. We are London group – Getting involved in London
2. The paper project- about paperwork in relationship to ones status in the county and making paperwork art
Stella does not do therapy
Although there is a referral group
We have external supervision from a clinical psychology

Preparation is very important in terms of having the right things in place.
It is important to take all these barriers into consideration, it supports all the work you are doing. One of the biggest barriers at Oval house has been that they are not very informed about theatre. We need to think of non-language led concepts about introducing theatre such as imagination, working together as a group, emotional qualities. We play games with objects as well. Objects can be added to the games to show non-verbal ways of addressing language barriers. Using objects can show young asylum seekers how they can begin to use imaginative construction. It also enables people to recognise and resonance helps us to make group work.

Exercise in Chanel’s group
A tutor you are working with starts asking participants about their stories of exile e.g. “What happened to you? Where do you come from? What’s the problem in your country?”
How does this affect your future practice?
• Thinking more of the needs of the young people and dilemmas
We work as gatekeepers between the young people and the world – e.g. journalism. It may affect our practice if we do not make the journalists sign an agreement.
• Personally Stella is not interested in their stories. She is interested in the now.
• For future practice it is important to note that there is boundaries in your team and boundaries with the young person.
• You must be very present as a facilitator in that moment
• Understand why people have that stance. Work in sympathy with your partnership organisation but also with what young people want as well.
• Create a non –stigmatised environment. Something that does not label them.
• We have trained a group of young people from diverse back groups who can talk to people in Arabic who go with us to communities, colleges, to explain what we do. Peer mentors.
C hanel Falzon

Log Entry 18
Reflection on class notes
Topic: How does what happens today affect tomorrow?
Date: 9 December
What is applied theatre?

Applied performance suggests that there might be a category that allows change to take place.
Applied performance is a process.
Something that happens today can affect what happens tomorrow. It is immediacy with the environment.

*What is it that applied performance is doing. You can coin the term for it. Culture is constantly evolving. Often we agree with what is in a book but it is important to counter these things. You can come up with your own debates.

Exercise on what Applied theatre is to you in groups.

You can also look up Ngugi Wationgo an African writer as reading material.
Michel Foucalt wrote about the canoptican in terms of surveillance. They question perception within modern/society. However we should understand how a prisoner got into that situation.

Also for asylum seekers there are a lot stereo types especially in the daily mail news paper.

Before you go into a project you need to know how you are going to deal with opposition. There was a wall, just like the Oval house wall. The wall was a barrier to applied performance.

Applied performance – Europe has rich history of interventionist theatre. You must have a look at a book called “Artificial hells, in relation to participatory performance.” By CLAIRE Bush. Also look at “The nightmare of participation” by Miessen.

Log Entry 19
Reflection on class notes
Topic: Plans for performance working with children
Date: 27 January
Choose day 10 AM we made our way to Mayville primary school at the arrival of the school. We checked in verification student IDs and we got passes to enter the school 11 AM we were went in to do school class. The children was in the playground having their playground playtime, as I looked around I observed How the children were whizzing around the playground. It seemed they had endless energy as they played that was children on tricycles and Running around playing happily. As I continue to look around, I noticed alone child a little girl by the fence. She was playing happily alone. I remember thinking she’s alone. It may be filling little sad and as I watched I notice she was talking I think she was talking to the pigeons, but she was very happy and then I continued looking around at the other children running around playing. It was almost as if they are no end to their energy.
Then the bell rang time to line up one of the teacher said, and all the children lined up to get ready to go back to their classes.
We went back to the classroom. I sat down in the chair observer being the children were told to sit down and be quiet. They were very well behaved children as the teacher was giving instruction I observed one boy hiding in a corner had blonde hair and he seemed to be quiet hiper he was doing his own thing like in his own world, but he was also interested in occasionally what was going on with the other children.
The teacher was giving the children instruction and then heated accounting game. He was asking the children to count nought to 20 with hand gestures for example on the head on the shoulders on the tummy on the needs and on the feet, so as they counted the numbers they had movement alongside the children seemed to enjoy this it was a very playful.
The teacher gave instructions for the children to go to all the different tables with in the tables and around the tables. There was different activities, for instance, drawing colouring in creative paperwork building blocks are reading corner. I observed the children went to different tables and started to do an activity. The first table I went over to was where for children was sitting and they would do in different drawings. I observed each drawing individually and I asked each child, what with a drawing on what their name was and I observed they were being very creative very quiet and they enjoyed the interaction I was giving to them. It seemed to make and feel more interested in what they were drawing and then I moved along to see what other children were doing.
I looked around the room. There was some boys in a corner. They weren’t exactly doing anything but they showed me the interesting art work on the wall. I asked them what is this one of the boys replied its nights I said, it’s very nice and then they began to show me the shields of the kinght and they said the shields going this little pocket and the kind are playing a game with it and there was very interested that I came over to them and they started talking to me.
And I scanned the room again, looking around, I noticed there was a reading corner. There was. 3 children sitting in the reading corner I said hello . One of the children invited me to sit down, so I sat on the floor. Then I asked the children. Their names and they told me they showed me the books that they chose to be so I said, who would like to be first to read me a book the boy in the middle of the two girls put his hand up . I said you would like to go second. So one of the other girls on the left-hand side put her land up and then I said to her girl that was left would you like to go third. She replied, yes, I observed that were very interactive with me and they like the fact that I was interested in listening to their stories so the boy read his story very confidently I said to him. Well done that was a really good story. I really enjoyed it when he was reading part of the story. I was making faces and his two girls were laughing the girls seemed to like this because this this story was about a character eating cake and they too much of the cake and I was making suggestions that when you eat too much cake you get full up. They seem to make an association with what I was doing and the story and how it help them express laughter freely.
Then second reader which was a girl showed me her book it was a book about a spider. She told me she liked spiders. I liked spiders too. Then she began to read the book I noticed instantly that the book was too difficult for her. Maybe found it was a high level, but nevertheless she bravely continued to try and meet the book I began to help her sound out the words that that was extremely difficult for her and then I letter read for a little while, by itself, and helped when she needed it at the end of the book she was telling me about her spider at home. She evidently collected a spider put it in the jar and it’s her pet. I found that very interesting that she chose a book that associates with her pet spider I said to her very well done for reading the book, as I found she had difficulty, but she never give up and then the third girl was just going to read her book, but time was up. They had to go on the carpet. I said to the third girl, never mind you, been very patient. Maybe next time when I come you can read a book to me. She seemed very happy with that. Then they got up, put the books away and went to the carpet. I found it very interesting How they really wanted to read me the book also they called me miss their she and I was a teacher which was very nice. I just like the fact really that through storytelling they characters come out in different ways. Whether you’re confident and confident still they characters was there.
When they sat on the carpet. They were told to keep quiet. They were shown little cards on the blackboard so they understood what that meant for the example. There was lips on the card that meant to be quiet. 2 there was a card showing a child sitting correctly waiting patiently the children seemed to respond to the cards very well then they had snack time they had to sit in the circle quietly and they were asked if they had any allergies. None of the children replied so the teacher continued. He checked the medical card to see if there was any children listed with allergies. Everything was okay. Then the snacks were given out the children were very sure of what they liked and what they didn’t liked most of them took a snack, which consist of raisins lollipops and cheese strings I noticed most of the children wanted cheese strings, but they ran out very quickly so that wasn’t enough to go around one child in particular didn’t want anything else. But there was no cheese strings left as the teacher explained to her and she sat down quietly and understood.
Then the children was told to sit in a line and then there was shown a film. It was a film about dog called peeping and and aeroplane with an actress, the owner of the dog within the film. The children seemed very fixed upon the dog and the storyline, the storyline was about the dog called peeping and if it was the dog’s birthday. The dog was aged two, the children watched the film, but they’ve got very short attention span and started to asked to go to the toilet and get some water, but most of the time they sat and watched the majority of the film, I noticed that girls laws in particular was extremely interested in the storyline was very focused on the dog Pip her and what the dog was doing. They found it very funny when the dogs tripped the lady up that was carrying a cake and sausages the cake and sausages went everywhere. But in particular the lady just had her dress drycleaned for the party and now it was fall of cake and the children found it very funny, interesting to see children finding this slap type comedy funny and to be able to respond to it at this early age.
For me, I learnt what goes on in the classroom and how the children are being educated. It was very insight for me as I never actually knew what went on with in a class of children of primary school age. I was surprised how the children interacted with all the students and they were very interested who we are were , but none of the children actually asked who we were. They just accepted that we were teachers and they called us miss of Mr four.
Then they will call to line up for dinner, a teacher come in the door. She called out the children that had packed lunches first I notice the children didn’t respond very quickly and then she called their names again and then they come up one by one and took their packed lunches out of the box that was put into the classroom earlier by another child from the same school. Then they asked the other children that was left to line up no pushing and to be quiet and wait their turn. It seemed throughout the class that a that they knew they shouldn’t be rude or Push one another as at the beginning of the session they were asked if they knew the 3 rules and some of the children put their hands up. Some of them got the first rule no no violence, no bullying and I think one person got the second rule l. You must share and I think the third rule, be kind to one another. I think this is really really helped the children to understand out to socialise with each other and tried to know have how to behave.
Log Entry 20
Reflection on readings
Topic: Theatre and young audiences
Date: February 2015
Reading 1 – Francis puppetry dramaturgy.
Francis, P. (20 12) puppetry ‘Dramaturgy PP.-12
Within the reading, dramaturgy is referring to 2 things. The first thing is the theatre works scripted for performance by puppets pants human beings doing the performances with the puppets and then the contrast of the stage of the performance Text and the inner presentation works.
Francis says that due in the preparation of (1890 – 1935) theatre artists was extremely attached to puppets and they were so deeply involved that they believe the actors could not carry out the spiritual inclinasment of the characteristics that the puppet could portray. The themes that was around at that time was religious very spiritual, magic madness, also death and dark sentiments all these are used within Puppet performances to present at the time.
Just some point before the 20thcentury. The format for scripting that was used for puppets was very similar scripts that were used for the human performer also to whom the puppet would be imitating at the time.
It seems there was speaking line and singing alongside dancing Francis explanation was that because of the impact of visual theatre. This gave opportunity for puppetry to obtain a place
with in the mainstream table. Francis continued to write about the play scripts for children and this was around the middle of the 20 th century time, there was lots of books of play scripts that was produced specially for the children and most was overloaded with dialogue, but the majority of the dialogue was left out earlier sensibility that was connected to puppetry ascetics led to children’s
needs to have understanding of what that may be. Therefore, only went to some of the stories were successful and will be used in presenting that day.
Children seemed to be able to respond to people that got characteristics ‘painted with bald brush strokes’ this is when characters get recognised from the child’s own perspective and this can be a good bad or happy or sad.The fall or visual intervention is the ones that give a big impact as the transformation in changes with the scale; the action is flowing with engaging and has surprises within it. This gives the children visual consumptions to understand the views of television and cinema and keeps them interested in what’s going on. Francis writes on that a young child of age. Two years can understand that using non-violence humour as they can see their self with in this scenario, therefore having a natural understanding of what’s going on.

Reading 2 – Devising performance.
Haddon & milling (2006), devising performance ‘devising and communities’. . 130- 156

Within this reading, heddon and milling talked about diverse in along with community arts. They started by letting us know about how early on, devising within the community arts and was closely considered to political and alterative theatre and were once a part of a movement that was democratisation of culture.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, the community was known as a set of social meaning and this gives consistent sees creating showing the mental with in the action and interaction of the member and the socialisation with society which says that the activity of communities could be powerful indeed.

Heddon then outlined the characteristics of the community theatre and its participation, and then see and say, devising practices are used or has been used within the community arts over the last 40 years and we may take in the spectrum and what the companies may have level of involving the communities members. Then the produce a political part to the works.
Reading 3 – David Wood master- class/symposium
HTTP; //theatre for-Young- audiences=
Centre/Rose- bur ford-College-tya/David- wood-symposium/http;// for-Young- audiences- centre/Rose-bur ford-College-tya/David-wood-symposium/)
This event took place at the barn Theatre at Rose Buford College in April. 20 11 this is the theatre for young audiences placed within the college annual event. It covers a practical view of David’s approach to making theatre for children and young people the audience composed of students from within the Rose Bufford School of performing arts and M a plus. Tya outreach projects which was run by research centre. Acting for children after the three-hour session there was a follow up question and answer section.

Video. 1

David began his session with a practical exercise volunteers that were in the audience were asked to characterise the giant from Rodale (DFG) (Woods plays; 2 Methuen (1919). ER is to begin to act like the Giants and began by sleeping and then to snore, but then to wake up so hungry and massed have a child to eat must consume to eat the child until they go completely satisfied and then they go back to sleep.

He then talks about how the children know the characterisation of the giant and is it the way the actors are moving in slow motion as this shows the appearance of the weight and size.

Continuation of David Woods’s master- class

He says that the actors do not try making it over the top funny as when an actor is asked to improvise. They think that should be done in a funny way.

Nevertheless, some of them were funny and they would be funny to watch and still very frightening. That’s what Rodale intention because he wanted children to have laughter, but wanted to things to be on the dark side to make it frightening as well.

Video 2
in the tasks that happens, David asked the person that is taking part to act out of a role that was given to them on the card, then the audience had to guess what was on the card; a fairly of a Santa Claus or something, most Bold and all choices and the actor must work with the sense of truth or “big acting “was what he called it.

You must take hold of the idea that of playing an animal or in the intimate object because if you can’t then children theatre is not for you will stop.

85% of actors seem to be scared of the “big acting “as it is not an easy thing to do.

Woods State you need to work with in a highlighted reality when working with children.

Video 3 David talks about how he started to write the children, then he talks he’s acting works with in the mainstream adult’s theatre films and working as a magician doing children’s parties. Successful with in productive in a performing. Then there was Saturday morning variety show for the children, as was requested to write “real” play for children “which was much unknown in them days “the first Amendment on a play was pretty dreadful. He was stuck on plays. He then went on to write the owl and the pussycat went to sea (wood’s plays; Methuen. 1999) and was a nationally a great success in London.

Video 4

within this section is based around an exercise using a passage from Woods own version of b, F, G, which shows a main character Sophie is going to be eaten by the giant and this shows the use of narrative, but the first person from the interface from David Edgar, but this is an attack patient Nicolas Nickeby.

There is a remainder us that the actor must work in the moment and the stakes remain high and is now watered down for the child’s audience.
Theatre for children; wood and grant.
This reading, start by talking about the idea that acting for children is easy compared to acting for adults. This is not true, and there are for it is the amount of energy that used at the time and what dedication is applied to acting. The young being challenging acting skills set.

Don’t fall back, into a still or childish type of acting stop.

Never anticipate- feedback encourage it.

Physical fit as a lot of energy is needed.

Avoid cynicism.

Do say thank you to they feel helpful as this is important to the performer.

Self- discipline.
Wood and grant talk about bigger picture to success of children’s theatre and can it is misleading because of tongue and cheek and the play was carefully reconstructed with crucial issues for children.

The readings, says that one of the actors notice that the children themselves did not enjoy themselves as there was no laughter, but on the contrary, if they didn’t like or enjoying it. Then there would have been chattering and moving around going on, but on the other hand, they did like it because of the engagement with the performance, despite no laughing present.
Reading 4 – Young audiences
Reason, M. (20 10). The young audience “theatrical competence PP 85- 99

This reading, reasons, writes the way children perceptions are when you are watching theatre.
He then questions whether children really have the emotional content alongside intellectual and understanding to be able to appreciate what they are watching at the time.

He starts by talking about the approach of theatrical capabilities itself, he then says, according to Bernard Rosenblatt , theacaill literacy requires the ability to perceive and recognise and interpret dramatic symbols systems at different intellectual called levels, therefore reasoning state because of this. The question is done, the ability to gain the understanding of technical symbols have a variety of different ones and this would depend on the age of the member of the audience and also the social factors are taken into account and the theatre experience.

The children show and illustrate their technical abilities using verbal mini cry or the art of mimicking as it was quite common for the children to do this as they are used in non—linguistic jesters with movement as a way to communicate their through in regards with the production they understand what was happening but they could not express what was happening. The children showed tough images that they understood what they were watching as they were drawing they knew exactly what colours to use. They expressed what they knew and this technical language and understanding of staging and development is for characterisation.

Reason, finishes with we learn from this case study because it shows us two things that we do not need to be worried about children development of understanding theatre shows as they don’t have the ability to do this, so the practitioner don’t need to waste time with this because they are engaging with their imagination and joining in themselves.
Reading 5 – dynamics of a children’s audience

Wood and grant (1997) theatre for children ’the dynamics of a children’s audience ’PP 15- 29
The readings starts by devising the differences between an audience of adults, teenagers, and children could the act to an actor, saying” hello ”Woods and grant stated that children would react immediately to the response of “hello ”unlike teenagers which would respond either sitting in silence or raising their eyebrows in contrast to adults audiences which would be to the act in a self-conscious way or not to react at all, even though teenagers and adults feel the excitement similar to children’s expressions. But in a different way.
Would and grant reinstated that when working with children through any project, it is vital to understand what children respond to and what makes them switch on and off as this information is vital.
Wood and grant specify that children are different in many ways;

# Children can become overexcited.

# Children let you know when they are bored- they will properly start talking, take their eyes off the stage or look around for something more interesting.

# Children enjoys being active participants rather than passive spectators- they enjoying a feeding of having a part of the performance.
# Children can be uncompromising and very direct.

#Children’s don’t always choose to come.

# Children far more than adults generate a sense of electricity in the theatre visits for them are exciting as they often meet a new experience or a day off of school, which is something special in their lives actors must acknowledge and respond to this.

# the composition of an audience for a children’s play is so variable.

# not always responds in the same way.
Children’s audience common characteristics.
# Children like being frightened with limits.

# Children make noise during the performance.

# Children are logical.

# Children responds to actions.
Continuation of children’s audience common characteristics.

# Children love stories- a good storyline is essential for any children to play, the story must be within a child understanding, but it does not be simplistic.

# Children will respond differently and unpredictably – note to audiences will respond the same, some will laugh more than others, some will be quicker than others to respond to the plots development.

# Children responds to action.

# Children loves animals and toys.
Reading 6 – Ethics of participatory theatre

The ethics of participatory theatre in higher education; a framework for learning and teaching.

HTTP; //creating- in- higher- education (HTTP; //creating- UK/resources/the/ethics- of-participatory-theatre- in= higher education)

Week three; ethics in participatory arts with Stella Barnes

Today’s class was on ethics with in the participatory arts, which was led by Stella Barnes, the first time we met, Stella Barnes was last term. She runs a class session.

The start of the session seller asked all of us to participate in a task named ’check-in ‘to achieve this we use both of arms to show the group in the class how we were feeding physically or mentally, when we raise both arms up to the sky. This meant we were feeling mentally and physically great, and then when we lowered our arms to the floor. This meant we were feeling physically and mentally and stable, we was given the choice to put one arm up and the other down at this session. This made you identify if you had any personal issues and how you would deal with this.

Then we played some game called 7-Up and what we had to do was to go around in a circle, then we had to count to 7. We worked as a group by saying one number at a time, then we had to point to the person to her left side and then we changed the direction the counting was putting them when number seven was reached. Then we had to put our hands on the heads then flick at this at the same direction where the counting was going, this was a very entertaining way of warming up. They were asked to use attitude, this exercise of warming up is a very energising game to play and I will differ definitely put this in my toolbox.

We then sat down with in a semi-circle stellar then showed us many different faces on pieces of paper. We were then asked to copy the faces using our own facial expressions, I found this very useful and extremely interesting as this made us think how you would engage with children, it was a very good way to become engaged with children.

They did an exercise where two people were up on stage and one person sitting in a chair. Then one person will walk over to them and give them a letter. This exercise was using improvisation, then both members that was on stage were to choose a face that we used earlier in the class so that the characteristics could be shown then sound was added when we did this in pairs will wind up both using and giving and receiving of the letters so you could both understand the giving and receiving sides.

We used to participate from the audience. Their job was to say 123 action at the beginning of the scene or freeze-frame at the end of the scene by using all the different roles that the participants could take part in this gave opportunity to all the participants to take part in open up the participants that may be very shy or new opportunities for the non-theatre education participant to take part.

The evaluation exercise that was where we had to be around in a circle and say one word from the workshop Stella then asked us- two check out using the show of arms that would show how we feel e.g. middle low or up to the sky to checking and to observe what change if any.

What wise did the workshop we do in class. What ethics and values facilitators with in the arts, and we had to think of what they were.

# Respect.
# Choice.


# Safety.
# Equality.
We were asked to use sticky note and asked to write the values was used. We stuck them on a big piece of paper that was on the floor, there were many reasons why one would choose not to participate, but then they may feel that they have participated too many times and they feel they would like to give the chance for someone else that is not done it yet to take part in there is the observation role and note taking is still taking part in another way, we all must remember that we are in the group we all individuals and we can be vulnerable I’ll we must take this on board.
The ethics of participaticipalory theatre in higher education; a framework for learning and teaching.
The practice varies this work that has performance base work that treats personal groups and social development.

It stands between different partictory theatre techniques and has its own ethical codes of its own, soclodrama, drama therapy, playback psychodrama, etc.

Participatory theatre is globally associated with usual and popular theatre forms like theatre in education format theatre and (theatre of the oppressed) also theatre for development.

Practitioners work solely on marginalized groups and others, and need to have spawned to care of duty with in diversity, equality, health and safety.

Log Entry 21
Essay on Dorothy Heathcote
Submitted 9 December


This is a case study of Dorothy Heathcote and Drama in Education. Heathcote was a remarkable educator with theories that were practically influential in the development of Drama in Education. Drama in Education is a technique to help children open up their minds and opinions, and express themselves within a performance arena in an education setting. Heathcote’s teaching and learning approaches inspired teachers from all over the world for more than half a century, because of her innovative and authentic approaches. She died at the age of 81 in 2011 when she about to receive a Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE) because of her contribution to education.

According to Heathcote and Bolton (1995), they were responsible for providing Drama in Education training for teachers and other professionals who were interested in developing drama practice in different educational contents. Most of the work was done to enhance the skills of teachers who were already experienced educators which sometimes included actors, although a small percentage of mentorship was provided to student teachers. The student teachers were helpful in establishing a partnership between Heathcote and the children that she was working with. Heathcote and her trainees pushed the boundaries of dramatic expression by asking students to improvise a story line within specified boundaries which enabled them to think creatively and express themselves freely and naturally.

In this essay, I will explore how Heathcote negotiates the teaching and learning process with children, how she connects with children and uses that connection to achieve communication. Then I will look at how Heathcote universalises the human dilemma and what dilemmas children are involved in when in role. Finally I will explore how Heathcote uses the Mantle across the Curriculum and her role as a facilitator.
How does Heathcote negotiate the teaching and learning process with children?

Heathcote negotiates the drama role-play through participatory approaches. The use of drama in education is well established and has been a part of education since the Renaissance when training in language literature (Heathcote, 19xx, p. xx). See Nicholson
In Drama and Learning (Heathcote, 1936) formal teaching in the classroom depends on techniques that include:
• An area in which the class can make decisions.
• Plan on to get the class involved and committed to work.
• By trying to understand how every verbal statement made would make an impact.
• Selecting signals and being extra careful and sensitive while doing teaching expressions
• By working slowly at the start and not to move until the class is committed to work because the class is expected to like drama automatically
• By giving positive comments to the class
Drama learning will arise through life experience and engagement with a dramatic world. Drama can, at the same time, give the educator a greater understanding of the participant by showing a story that the participant can relate to real life.
Through being a facilitator within my Applied Theatre workshop, I explored how to negotiate roles, and used communication and expression with my fellow students to include them in the play and games that we were creating. While teaching Sunday school children drama, singing and dance, I used Heathcote’s techniques to help the children open up and express themselves freely.

Drama in education can become problematic at college level when students who are used to improvising and choosing their own forms of theatre and drama techniques are suddenly faced with have to use specific techniques with specific texts which are imposed on them by their tutors. Drama is usually understood as text and theatre performances in front of an audience according to An Actor (Author xxx,1936). Heathcote (19xx) argues that teaching a formal theatre curriculum is quite easy to plan and evaluate because of the improvisation skills needed within the professional theatre, as shown by Stanislavski (19xx, reference needed for Method Acting and Basic Principles).
Heathcote’s (19xx) technique puts an emphasis on teachers to initiate, to direct, to put a time on the work, and to show guidance and mentoring throughout. This technique helps the teacher to engage with and be accepted by the children so that it can be used as a form of discipline when their behaviour becomes a problem. The teacher can better understand this behaviour. Heathcote points out the solutions available to her:
“She does not abandon her stance as a teacher, but builds trust in the drama by negotiating as a teacher. This helps the students to do things and the teacher helps to see the job of the teacher ‘in role’ show the students how to actively participate in the fictional event.” (Heathcote, 19xx p.xx)
How does Heathcote connect with children to achieve communication?

Heathcote negotiates by committing and being involved in the play itself. Heathcote consider that the use of sign is one of the teaching essentials and tools. The sign is the heart of communication within the human face? However, it is the individuals or the virtual world within the theatre. When Heathcote reversed to signs and portents, she is related to her background within theatre because of her sign in the classroom.

Theatre as an art-form is entirely based on sign and Heathcote’s development of her thirty-three conventions displaying her deep understanding of theatrical processes and the way this may be used within drama and education.

The role of the teacher is to show the student how to actively participate in the fictional events. However, the teacher’s job is to publicly show and be able to read or interpret and be interrogated by the students. Reflection on the event has always been an important element within Heathcote’s work within drama. Therefore, as well as having the experience of being part of the drama, she emphasised knowledge of self-spectatorship as part of art to release the spectator action, showing possible choices or alternative perspective.

When the students are not concentrating, teachers act as spectators and students must be awakened so that they perceive and enjoy the world through action and responsibility even as they function in it. This strategy promotes close attention to details and also shows the importance of reflection and interpretation and the start of understanding the dramatic form. The convention needs a change of learning ways to have an elaboration of understanding and work its way through different kinds of experience.
Can we universalise human dilemma?
The importance of Heathcote methods of teaching was to develop the aesthetic of distance and the use of objects to show how to suspend time within drama, so that the interpretation of events and issues be possible. One technique Heathcote used through manipulation, but with different degrees of distance within the work, was the use of the frames.

She explains the concept of frames in signs and portents as one of her most influential pieces of writing that Heathcote has ever produced and is widely cited within publications and academic study. This was written in the journal of the standing conferences of Young People’s Theatre, and then Theatre in Education (Ref….). Much of the philosophy and practice of Theatre in Education is still used within drama practice, but within applied theatre as is international known.

In role, what dilemmas are the children involved in?
According to Heathcote’s practice (1978), working with children for teachers need to be aligned with a relationship between the teacher and the student. This encourages students to draw power from their teachers, and the teachers empower the students. However, it is made clear that there is a requirement of mutual understanding between the students and teachers and both should agree mutual respect, constantly paying attention to students’ attitudes and their responses with teachers having the ability not to judge students by their behaviour. Heathcote clearly says that drama is a social art, which teachers agree to by encountering students’ performances. She knew that teaching is an open skill that is expected to change at any minute and teachers should be responsive to spontaneous changes in the classroom. She had a clear understanding of difficult situations that may happen, and risks that may arise due to unpredictable situations. Her advice was to encourage teachers to watch children playing and to become comfortable with play. (Dorothy Heathcote on Education and Drama, Essential writings)

However, Heathcote has two concerns with regards to teaching; the first one is the way a teacher exchange approaches students in a class and the second is that she prefers communication to be a two-way between teacher and student. Her concern is the communication in classroom settings between teachers and students is elemental and the centre of the education system.

Mantle Across the curriculum
The dilemmas children are involved in are how to improvise with the nature stating of the play or story and to respond through communication.
Changing the techniques that Stanislav’s Viola Spolin (improvising for the theatre 1964) developed 200 acting games and exercises and was developed for actors and young people also. The community spontaneous exercises are still important part of drama training programmes. It is taught of different countries mainly in college and secondary levels.
Pioneered approach within Britain by Dorothy Heathcote and Gavin Bolton is broadly used around the world. Heathcote used ending within the product as an experience within itself and the reflection that works Heathcote works are on theatre forms.
Heathcote started work within the function of the teacher during the lesson using drama teacher and remains as the external facilitator. However Heathcote like to adopt the role herself therefore a director side. This is known as the teacher in-role and Heathcote identified this.

Heathcote education was to work on building a reflection and energy of writing and map marking. Just in the recent years, Heathcote developed learning through reflection and gaining experience. This is because the drama group is using nature to become popular among drama teacher.
The teacher within the role is a strategic and profound officer on drama and many different places throughout the world. The foundation shows it is important a collaboration is demonstrating sharing. Power structure between student and teacher whether it is site pacific or in a classroom of a theatre.

To conclude, Dorothy Heathcote and Drama in Education looks at:
In-role, how is she facilitating what is happening?
The teachers’ role is to facilitate within the classroom. Drama uses the teacher to engage in the happenings in classroom differently.

Mantle of the Expert: key elements published in the Turkish Creative Drama journal (2010), gives a good understanding to the approach that is specific to learning goals, which schools are supposed to achieve. This approach has the instinct in pretending to play what has been taught and achieve the learning outcomes. The teacher would have to model and behave as a student by using a selective language and signing. This helps the students to learn about things and to thinking within the situation. This makes students to engage and accept responsibility on how to respond to their clients’ needs.
Below are elements that are essential to generating and sustaining Mantle of the Expert according to the website,
• The teacher’s language sustains the fiction
• Teachers may have to work in a different role
• Having work progress through relevant tasks
• When teachers and students behave ‘as if’ produces the ‘now time’ in the drama of deep play elements.
• Introduce “if early on and in a way that will appeal to the particular class” (give the students a glimpse through the raised curtain)
• Give the group power to function, this gives the work its overall dynamic, in respect of what is seen as the major overall task, mainly by steps needed over minor steps.
There are aspects in which drama seems to be a force in developing social process. The responsibilities of changing dramatic work lies in the teachers (Toffler, 1980). He suggests the teaching should begin with the teachers themselves and not closing their minds prematurely to the novel.
According to Mantle of the Expert: key elements, students are taught in a way that their teachers perceive them. Students’ attitudes are picked up by teachers during their class contact and this generates perceptions.


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