Monthly Archives: February 2015

Politics of Memory and Performance Portfolio Bethnal Green Memorial – materials and reflections

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Log Entry 1
Reflection on Audio Walk
Memorial to Bethnal Green Disaster – March 3 1945
Ananda Breed
9 February 2014

Went on audio walk and then go home and find an emotional connection to Bethnal Green. We then had to write up approximately 200 words about the experience.

Bethnal Green Disaster Memorial
# Young people sitting around the Bethnal Green Memorial site.
# Community, laughing,.
# must not have lost of history, and to move forward.
# Image, community of the time, who, what is the consistency of time.
# Entertainment, front rooms, where they used entertains back during World War II.
# Government cover-up stories don’t want truth at of what happened that day.
# Community spirit got a lot of survivors.
# Number of theatres with in the local area of Tower Hamlets, Bethnal Green, Hackney and Shoreditch.
# Most of the stars that was in movies and theatre with in the East End was Jewish.
# Rivers, ships, you were bombers.
# 30 years. It was kept hidden by the BBC and plays until the 50th anniversary then the truth come out about what happened within the Bethnal Green disaster.
#Tower Hamlets archives sources.
Chanel Falzon u 132 3625
Disaster Memorial story

on the evening of March 3, 1945 the air raid sirens came on hundreds of people fled their homes and many was out for the night at the pubs or the Cinema enjoying a night out, they had to rush to get to a shelter because East London had no gardens of space for and Anderson shelter.
That fatal night there was panic, screaming, screaming that there was a bomb, people were pushing running to the entrance at the cheap station that night the steps were only 19 wide steps leading down into the ticket hall, there was no hand rails to hold onto and the floor was very treacherous and wet. The only light source was a single light bulb.

The events that happen next, with very tragic a woman with a small child suddenly fell and stumbled on the stairs, and then an elderly man lost his footing and fell over shortly after others started falling. It was a bit like the Domino’s effect, very quickly. People were piled on top of each other. Five or six bodies piled up over one another and people were quickly crashed.
Mainly people got pinned down by the way of the bodies of the person above them so people could not move of escape or Breath , according to the government and magistrates report, but the government kept it quiet for two years and the local people was advised by the government not to talk about it.
This was one of the worst civic disasters with in the modern British history that was not calls by any immediate action, World War II, but in fact by bad lighting and disrepair to the station and stairs contributed to the incident that night, even though the pairs was reported to be carried out in the near future, that tragic night hundred and 73 people died and 62 of those were children.
What happened that night was kept secrets because Julian World War II, the government harsh everything up and the local people was to told not to speak of the incident as this with underlying the war effort and the morale. But the government did not want to disclose what really happened that night. The media, newspapers, radio, had limitations in what they could say.
When reading the individual stories of what happened that night in Bethnal Green Chip shelter. It was mainly working-class people that lived in and around the surrounding areas of Bethnal Green women during the war worked many different jobs as during that time most of the work men were fighting a war’s most of the winning with doing a man’s job and how a woman worked as a bus driver, but was treated like second class citizens.
Living in the East End was tough. Most of the working class people went through hardships in life, but East end people never give up. They stick together and continue on no matter what, and their characteristics are very strong.
That night on the Bethnal Green stairwell people were trying to make their way back home when the all clear was given as during the wartime, when the sirens went off. They also had a Simon for all clear. The bodies from the stairway were laid out flat on the ground as the ambulance could not collect the bodies quickened to take them away. People started to return to their homes in shock of what happens. They didn’t know whether any of their loved ones was in the Bethnal Green shelter all they could do was to return home and checked to see if their family members were safe and sound.
When the bodies from the disaster was taken to the local hospital on Hackney Road the nurse on duty that night said the bodies did not have any sustainable injuries nor a mark on them, they suffocated and that was very clear because of the blue around their face lack of oxygen stop.
This lack of oxygen connected me to a personal memory of my mother that died of OC P, which is a condition of the lungs, and grieving. You see, my mum is very ill for many years and she died in the local hospital. The Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel around nine years ago, this triggered off a sad memory for me. Then it interconnected with another memory.
This memory was around six years ago when I had a stroke. I was living in Bethnal Green around the corner from the birth Bethnal Green station on pop Street E2, that day I was not feeling very well and I had to take my kids to nursery and school I had to drive my daughter, who was free at the time to a nursery in Roman Road market. Then I had to drive from Roman the market to Brick Lane to take my son to school. I was setting in. In school, as he just started, as I left the school. I didn’t feel very well, so I decided to go to my GP, just off of Bethnal Green Road.
I had symptoms of shortness of breath my left arm and leg was going numb down one side. I struggled to park my car with one hand only my right. By the time I got to see a GP. My speech at started to slur my face started to drop to one side. I was having a stroke, the doctor wanted an ambulance to take me straight away to hospital but I said no, as I must pick up my children first and school I had to be strong and brave as I knew what Woods happened to me, I phoned a friend and asked them to meet me at my daughter’s nursery. I don’t know how physically that day that I got in the car and continue to drive with one hand only.
Their me my friend picked up my son and I went back home. Somehow I found the strength to pack a bag make arrangements for my kids to be taking care of then I lay down on my bed and asked my friend to call an ambulance, I feel without my East End strength as I called it, “never give up “I don’t think I would’ve survived it, the ambulance rationing to hospital with the blue light on, but that’s all I remember. Then I found myself waking up in a hospital bed and I didn’t quite understand was going on. All I know I was told by a nurse and a doctor that I mustn’t get out of bed and I must keep totally steal. I was given an injection which was extremely painful and then I had to learn how to speak and walk again.
I was in hospital for a few weeks. The healing process was slow. I left hospital and stayed at my dad’s house, where I slowly recovered after this tragic traumatic event, I began to ask myself what do I want to do in my life, And how can I make my life better, so I decided that I would like to return back to college and become more educated. I did my GCSE English and maths. This was my starting point from their I did a further three years. Two years at college and hate and the course, it shake my life because of that tragic traumatic event of the stroke after four years of college, I was able to obtain a place at University of East London in 2013 and I’m hoping that I will pass the graduate and then do a further year in a masters course at UEL. It changed my life direction, even though physically, I became weak, but it shake me as a person and it made me a stronger human being and because of this tragic of then I will never give up in anything that I attempt to do.
The local shared memory. Some may was that the people died were East End people like me and I could strongly relate to them. I have somehow got an emotional connection to them in some way. I also have plexus T of the East end mentality. It’s simple, never give up. Be strong and carry on, I initially felt very sad. Quite emotional when I did the auto will for the Bethnal Green disaster. It was almost as if I was there, walking likes a ghostly fashion with them almost walking in their footsteps, where they will and then that connection continued and linked with another connection.
The connection links me to my bereavement feelings as two years ago on 7 February 2013. My father died, but for some unknown reason, the connection between the people that died in the Bethnal Green stairway and the connection of the feelings of me grieving and my dad’s death. Somehow linked and the bereavement and the emotional content come out more on that day and I fell the loss of all the people that were listed that died that day and it was very sad.
The global shared memorial which tragic by the loss of life for the Bethnal Green disaster, my mind linked September 11, 2001, I was looking after my mother that day as she was unwell. We were having a cuppa tea and watching news, I remember seeing the newsflash I was thinking it was a film or a joke or something. I just sat there in shock. I remember looking at my mum and my mum didn’t quite believe what she was seeing, but neither did Me September 11, the global connection. The tower of the World Trade Centre collapsed on September 11, 2001. As a result of the centre’s twin towers being hit by a jet airliner hijacked by terrorists affected by Qaeda this global memory. This tragic traumatic disaster links the Bethnal Green disaster locally personal memory and global dramatic intervention.
During the attacks. 2, 7 5 2 people died that day, including all 157 passengers(including hijacker) crew aboard the two aeroplanes, the clear up was a massive operation coordinated by the city of New York Department of design and construction on 22nd, the health effects it had on Manhattan’s city as a dust cloud covered Manhattan over four days, and has resulted in a seniors in air quality and was more likely to be the cause of many long term medical and psychological effects like asthma, sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and post-traumatic stress disorder.
I feel that 7, 11 are globally recognised around the world and because of this incident. There are changes that have taken place because the terrorism and the safety of planes and how this is affected the world today. There have been changes made on planes because of the terrorist threats. There are new rules and regulations on what you are able to take on the plane with you and also with the passport control and because of the change within government and with security issues. This is become a dramatic intervention because of what the terrorists did, and the reaction from government to protect from this ever happening again and this is interlinked to the terrorist attack in London seventh of July 2005, bombing, where suicide attack in central London and target civilians using the public transport system during the morning rush-hour for suicide bombers killed over 700 people and more was injured. This brought about change within the MFI government and the security measures and did all so linked with the United States president George Washington, Bush and other countries globally, there was a sympathetic empathy in regard to the bombings in London and September 11 in America, the tragic cheese that’s happened is very sad facts, but the global indications it brings different communities together and that in itself is a dramatic intervention.

Information about the Memorial Project from the official website which unfortunately is currently being re-designed and is unavailable.

WHAT IS THE PROJECT ABOUT?
The Bethnal Green Memorial Project is dedicated to collecting and preserving records relating to the disaster and its aftermath. We now have more than 30 interviews with witnesses, relatives and survivors, and have digitised hundreds of documents and images, all complementing the Bethnal Green Disaster Memorial in honouring the 173 people who died in the disaster, their families, rescuers and those who survived. Funded generously by the Heritage Lottery Fund, and in partnership with Bishopsgate lnstitute, Raphael Samuel History Centre, University of East London, Stairway to Heaven Memorial Trust, and a dedicated team of volunteers, we are producing a book, an audio trail around the memorial in Bethnal Green Gardens, education resources, a touring exhibition, this website, and an archive of memories, material and support for future use. Our aim is to commemorate and immortalise the events of 3 March 1943. lf you are able to support us, please click DONATE.
THE DISASTER
Shortly after an air-raid warning on the evening of 3 March 1943, hundreds of people in Bethnal Green fled for shelter. Hurriedly leaving their homes and the pubs and cinemas where many were enjoying a night out, they made their way to the nearest shelter. ln East London many houses had no garden or space for an Anderson Shelter, and the London Underground offered protection. That night approximately two thousand people bedded down in Bethnal Green Underground shelter. ln nearby Victoria Park the Royal Artillery fired an unfamiliar rocket-based anti-aircraft weapon. A tremendous, unexpected ‘whoosh’ filled the air just as several buses emptied of passengers near the underground shelter. There was screaming; some shouted that it must be a bomb. There was rush to get to shelter through the only entrance to the tube station – 19 wide steps, with no central handrail, led down toward the ticket hall. The dark, wet staircase was ill-lit by single light bulb. Suddenly a woman with a child stumbled and tripped; an elderly man fell over her; others couldn’t stop themselves tumbling on top. Very quickly the crush of bodies was five or six deep. Pinned down by the weight of those above them, people couldn’t move – and they couldn’t breathe. According to the official magistrate’s report, which was not made public for two years, ‘the stairway was converted from a corridor to a charnel house in ten to fifteen seconds’.
The scale of this appalling tragedy was unprecedented. lt was one of the worst civilian disasters in modern British history not caused by enemy action. There were 173 deaths, 62 of whom were children. The death toll was greater than the 1989 Hillsborough stadium tragedy and the 1966 disaster at Aberfan. Given the scale of the disaster, it is perhaps surprising that the location and many details of the event were kept secret during the war and it has largely escaped public memory ever since. The newspapers were not allowed to report the full details of the tragedy and survivors were told not to talk about it for fear of undermining the war effort. The day after the disaster crucial central handrails were installed. A year later the Bethnal Green Corporation was successfully sued for negligence. Since then, the tragedy has been rarely discussed and the event is strangely absent from many popular accounts of the home front, which like the newsreels of the time, tend to emphasise the more positive aspects of life sheltering underground from the bombing.
The official records of the event are relatively sparse; recently released
documents under the Official Secrets Act include government discussions
suppressing the full results of the subsequent enquiry liability and compensation; there are censored press accounts and Corporation records available in local archives. Since the launch of a memorial appeal, contact has been made with survivors, witnesses and those who treated the injured and their families. There are photographs, written records and personal memories of the victims, the disaster and its aftermath. Much of this personal material still remains in family homes. For a long time the event was very simply memorialised in a small plaque on Bethnal Green Underground station entrance but following a campaign by survivors and relatives, money has been successfully raised for the installation of an impressive site of remembrance adjacent to the Underground station. (See www. stairwaytoheavenmemorial.org for details – the charity is still fundraising to finish the final stage of the memorial).
The memorial design is architecturally and artistically striking and will be a
prominent feature on the Bethnal Green landscape for years to come; it has already been registered for the London Open House programme. The site, which records the names and ages of all the victims, is also the focus of an annual ceremony on the anniversary of the disaster. The story of the idea, design and building of the memorial itself is also being recorded for posterity.

Log Entry 2
Individual Stories of Survivors from the Disaster
Memorial to Bethnal Green Disaster – March 3 1945
Ananda Breed
9 February 2014

STORIES TO REMEMBER . INDIVIDUAL STORIES

Ada Magnus
Ada and her friend Doreen were watching a film in The Rex cinema in Bethnal Green Road when the air-raid siren sounded. They immediately made their way out of the cinema and parted outside – Ada to her nearby home where she joined her family in their shelter. The following morning Ada heard that Doreen and her mother had died on the steps of Bethnal Green underground shelter.
hrlemarial Frojecf
. ,.. ._ i:: ,
lvternorial Froject
BethnalGreen Memorial Proiect: Oral Histcry Summary
Catalogue Number: lnterviewee/s:
Ada Magnus
lnterviewer/s:
Philip and Amy
Date of lnterview:
28 January 2014
Location: Length of interview:
25 minutes
Any other infc
Time:
0:00
1:30
3:40
6:15
8:30
10:00
11;00
L4:00
L7:00
L8:45
Summary;
lntroduction, Description of Ada’s childhood and family background. She hardly
attended school until she was fourteen, when she left school to work.
Ada remembers being bombed out for the first time. She and her sister found shelter
with relatives for a while.
At fourteen, Ada started working as a machinist. She describes how several of her
friends and colleagues died in the Bethnal Green tube disaster. She was attending a film
screening that night.
After the film, Ada went home and later went to an air raid shelter, while some of her
friends ended up going to the tube station. Ada didn’t hear about what had happened
until the next day.
Ada can’t remember much about the days before the disaster, She recalls going to the
shelter frequently, windows covered in cardboard, and queuing up for rations. She also
recalls getting some good on the black market.
She is aware of the guns stationed in Barmy Park around the time of the disaster and
that they are assumed to have caused the noise that started the disaster.
After the disaster, Ada moved on with life. She describes her relationship with a young
pilot who also died. She also remembers a pub that was later destroyed by bombs.
Ada never had to identify any of the bodies, and turned down the offer to see her
friend Doreen for a last time.
She speaks about her family history in cabinet making.
Ada tells a story about going to the Bingo and running into her brother’s friend and how
they had been affected by the disaster.
I
22:34 She remembers a row of little shops, including a fish and chip shop, that no longer exist.
She speaks about how people were scattered and relocated as a result of the war, and
she lost touch with many.
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Memorial Project
Bethnal Green Memorial Project lnteruiew Transcript
lnterviewee (AM): Ada Magnus
lnterviewer {l}: Philip Sunshine, Amy Cooper
Date: 28 January 2014
Location: Ada’s home
l: Hello, this is Philip Sunshine with Amy Cooper interviewing Ada Magnus for the Bethnal Green
Memorial Trust on the 28th Jan 2014. First of all I’d like to thank you Ada for taking part in this.
AM: You’re quite welcome.
l: I’d like to ask you to describe your early life and background of your life and family. School, leisure
and work.
AM: I was born in Russia Lane and Mowlem Street school, then the war broke out. I did go to school
for a little while at Whitstable, then my mum, I was the youngest, so she didn’t, she came in, I never
went to school til I left, nearly fourteen. So I suppose really I’m a dumbhead. {laughs)
l: What about your friends? Playing out on the street?
AM: You couldn’t, could you? You used to get bombing raids in the day. I wasn’t kept in, I used to go
out, but you couldn’t go far because you had to go in the shelters. We used to go to – I did get
bombed out in 1940, the first lot of bombing. I lived on the corner of Russia Lane and Robinson
Road. And we had to get out right away, we were but in Globe Road school. And my dad was a
dustman. And we weren’t in there for long, couple of hours after the night. We wasn’t pulled out, we
walked out. He said to my mum, I found a place. lt was in Treadway Street, but that didn’t have any
back on either. But he wouldn’t stay in the – I can’t remember what it was called now, but you went
there when you got bombed out. They take em in churches and all that. lt was just for when you was
bombed out. But only when you were bombed out, he was quite an independent man, And we
stayed there and my sister was having a very nervous time. She was getting bad with nerves. And we
went down to my sister in law’s aunt in Whitstable for a little while. Stayed there. Eventually we
came back, and by then they lived in Granby Street, which was a better house but we still had to go
down the shelter every night. And we used to go down Godfrey Phillips, there was a big tobacco
place. Cause my mum worked there, so she was allowed to use this shelter in the night and you
never even heard the bombing down there. I think I was about twelve when we moved to St Jude’s
Road. I was there til I got married. I went to school from there. lt’s Lawdale now, it was Lawrence
then. And I left at fourteen and went to work.
l: What sort of work did you take on?
AM: I went machining at first but it wasn’t so good, I’m not so good with the eyes. And my friend
who got killed was quite bright. She was quite a clever girl. She had a brother that had already been
to Parmiters- when this happened. And I think that what happened with him – I think they mainly
went for him because he was so nervous. And then he became the caller – I don’t know why,
because he was quite a clever fella. He was about three years older than me. He became the caller
for the Bingo in Hackney Road. His name was Tommy Chandler, the same as his father. I was friends
with them. With Doreen more, she had another sister Pat. Tommy and Pat got out of that, they was
in that. Pat I think had done nursing. She was also quite bright, they were quite bright allof them.
(XXX) I didn’t go friends with her like. She’d only live round the corner from me. A very nice quiet
sorta girl she was. And she got killed. lthink she was about thirteen as well, same as us. But she just
turned fourteen, Doreen. And cause her birthday was in January. We’d been to this picture palace, I
think it was King’s Row, I think it was Ronald Reagan, the ex-president, better actor than a
president… I shouldn’t say.
l: Most people would agree with you on that. (laughs)
AM: lliked him.
l: What was this cinema called?
AMr lt was originally called Smarts. That would have been in your dad’s time. And then it was called
The Rex. lt went to The Rex, and then it was the Essoldo I think. lt was only a flat one like the
museum one in Cambridge Heath Road. We came out from there cause the raid went, I better go. I
said alrightthen. lleft herthere because lonly livedthrough Hollybush Gardens in StJude’s Road.
And I never knew no more about it til the next morning, cause we was in the shelter as well. But
apparently they heard a noise, and I’m still not sure which part they was crushed in. I take it it must
have been the first part, because they said they was all crushed on the stairs. And her mother was a
very good-looking woman. She was only young, thirty-something. Very filmstar-ish to me, cause my
murn had me when she was forty, you know what I mean. The only impression I got was my sister,
cause she used to be quite smart and all that, There were dresses then, weren’t there, at that age.
And that was it. And I left her out there, and I didn’t know no more. And Dickie Corbett, the boxer, I
did know his son, he died there.
l: Was that his boxing name, Dickie Corbett? Cause… Richard Coleman, wasn’t he, as well?
AM: They said that was his name, but I never thought of it like that. Just called him Dickie Corbett
And I think Doreen’s mum’s name was Lil, I think. I can’t remember really now, it was such a long
while ago. Although when I go to the library I always go and look at the thing. Always go.
l: So can you tell us a little bit more about Dickie?
AM: No, I didn’t know much about him. I didn’t know much. lf a couple of my brothers would have
been alive, they woulda told you because one of my brothers did box for the Territorials and all that,
you know. And I don’t think Dickie would’ve been as old as him. Cause he was twenty years older
than me, he was the first in the family. But the two or three older ones might have been able to say
something. But they’re all gone now, I’m the only one left out of us.
l: You spoke a bit about the disaster. But leading up to the disaster, what was the days leading up to
the disaster like?
AM: I can’t remember really, just used to go. To be truthful, you had to come out of the shelter early,
get ready. lt wasn’t any life really. Mostly your windows was card boarded up or boxed up. Which to
me was horrible. Absolutely horrible. Like they all have blinds now, and I hate blinds. I won’t have
blinds. Only in the kitchen ‘cos l’d had to have the cooker put near the sink. But other than that I
won’t have blinds. You went to the shelter, you’d come home, they went to work or to school, you’d
done what you could. Sometimes you just got cleared up, there’d been a little bit of bombing near
you, yourd come home to an houseful of dust and soot again. That’s what it was. Then you had to
queue up for a lot of things. You know, you got rations, but you got to queue up for some things.
Unless you got a bit black market, which we all did. But we couldn’t let my dad know, cause he was
wounded in the First World War he wouldn’t touch nothing like that. But we would. But we never let
him know.
l: What was it like after, who were people blaming?
AM; Well, they reckon – ldon’t know, we did have the guns in the park, in the little park. We call it
the Barmy Park, it’s where the library is. Someone said it was one of them, and someone shouted
and they all rushed. That was as far as I know. And another little bit, my friend who got killed, her
father, Tommy Chandler, married Stella Odell’s mother after. How that came about I don’t know. I
don’t think I seen him after she was buried.
l: You talk about your friend – what was her full name?
AM: Doreen. Doreen Chandler, don’t know if she had a second name.
l: Was it spoken about in the community afterwards, the disaster?
AM: lt was a big deal at the time, you know. I was really upset cause we got quite close friends. But
it’s like everything else, time goes on. I had a young fellow next-door-but-one from me, aircraft pilot,
l’m not sure what he was, pilot or… can’t think of the word, when they do allthe sections. You
know? Like geography, but they sort out… navigator, ain’t it? He was killed then, he was about
twenty-four. He got buried from the street, St Jude’s Street. He had like the flag and the whatsit all
come down for him like, you know. There were so many things really happened that you know.
There was a pub along the road, The College Arms, that got bombed. And there used to be two
young boys in there, it was… he got killed. His sister used to go and help him. Course she had her
two little boys with her. One’s nearly as old as me. The other one died, Dickie. And then she had a
younger one after the war. Her husband come home and he died. They got bombed out. But thank
God they got out of it her and the boys but Harry got killed. But people was getting killed
everywhere, so you know. When we got bombed out there was a fish shop. Just round the corner
from Russia Lane. There used to be a pub on the corner called The Albert. And this fish shop was
always busy, His brother worked in there as well. You know when you’re a kid you’re going: Can we
have some crackling? They used to give it, you know. Everyone knew him. And then after the war
she’d go… I don’t know if it was one of her family. She survived the bombing in Cambridge Heath
Road, just along the fish shop there. Then I don’t know what happened to her, I suppose she died.
They were nice people. I think Manny’s brother died, I think he had a brother work there as well.
(brief pause)
AM: ls that it?
l: With the disaster, did you identify the bodies? Did you ever hear about stories?
AM: No. They asked me if I wanted to see Doreen. She was buried from her grandmother’s house
and that was round the corner from us in Poyser Street. But I wouldn’t. When I was young, you don’t
associate death when you’re young. You think you’re immortal, don’t you? All of a sudden you
realise you’re not. (laughs)
(pa use)
l: Can you tell us a little bit more about the Krays?
AM: No I can’t really because I only knew the mother, but only as a neighbour to say hello to and her
sister. I didn’t know Rose. That was Billy Wilsher’s mum. What was the other sister? There was
another sister. Always used to talk to her, she used to come along with Charles Dickens House. I
can’t think of her name now. You forget things when you get older. That’s about it. I can’t tell you
anything about’em. My brother, cause he’d lived there quite a while, was quite friendly with them.
Not really with him so much as with Charlie Kray. Charlie Kray and his wife used to come over to
their house and talk. They were villains and that’s it, wasn’t they.
l: Did you hear things about them at that time?
A: No. Funnily enough no-one local did talk about ’em really. I suppose if you’re used to someone,
unless they interfere with you or something like that, I don’t think you take any notice. My
grandmother’s shop was round the corner here, they was in there for eighty odd years.
l: What shop was that?
AM: lt’s got an Asian gown shop now. They just used to make wreaths and all that. Actually, their
name is in the.,, one of the books of workshops, I can’t remember his name. A Jewish man. I know I
got it out of the library. They mentioned him there, and like people that used to make furniture, bits
of furniture. Two of my brothers, that’s what they done, they made furniture. Tables and that. One
of my brothers I think done a trolley for Princess Anne. Polished it. He was a polisher, and he was an
absolutely lovely man as well. That’s what they done.
l: A lot of carpentry, all the bars would have… you know, the bars would be made in mahogany and
things like that.
AM: Well I think all of Shoreditch used to be cabinet makers and that, I know my mum’s father had a
workshop in, you know when you cross over from Columbia Road, not Cremer Street. You can just go
up the next one,.. I can’t remember the name of that now neither. I can walk it. But can’t think of the
name of it. Kingsland Road. He had a workshop there. They lived over that way more. You know. And
they had a great big family, but I hardly knew any of them. They all make their own way, don’t they.
Or they did. I don’t know if they still do. (laughs)
l: With the Krays, when did you first hear about any trouble with them then?
AM: I think I lived here by then. I suppose my brother would have heard more but he never ever said
anything to us. But as I said, when they live local… they used to use the pub over the road we used
to use. You never… no-one took no notice of them, One of the vicars was always with them. The
church over there, St Matthews. That was it. Other than that I didn’t know nothing about him. I
think Billy Wilsher’s mum was Rose, and I knew him, Billy well. lt was really through him that Charlie
Kray and Dolly used to go over. Because he really was my brother’s friend, him and his wife Nora.
Even his grandson, one of them used to live down in the bottom. That’s as much as I know, really. I
used to always speak to his mum. His gran and grandfather used to be there, You know where them
new houses been, them self-build houses. That’s where they used to live in the little house there,
right next to Cheshire Street near the baths you know. That’s where they used to live. Other than
that I don’t know nothing about them.
{brief pause)
AM: He stopped in front of me. I was never a smatl person. He stood right in front of me, so I said,
well hello, don’t you know your old mate’s brother, I said looking at him. He had the most beautiful
curly hair, blond hair. He never had a hair on his head. Whether it was the bombing or the tube
disaster I don’t know. But I said, blimey, I said what happened, I said I didn’t recognise… I didn’t.
Although his face hadn’t changed really when I looked at him. But I never even associated with him.
It just shows you… he never had no hair. ,And I never kept in touch with Pat which was my fault really
cause she used to write to me. But in the finish ljust let it go, which was wrong really of me, but
that’s what happened.
l: lf you could just go back at the beginning of that story, abut being in the Eingo? lf you could just
tell us again?
AM: lt’s on there, innit?
l: We didn’t have the beginning…
AM: Oh well, I went to the Bingo with my sister. And I went down to buy ice cream in the interval.
And he came along and stopped in front of me and said, don’t you know your old friend’s brother?
And I said, who it was, but he never had no hair. Cause when I knew him he had lovely blond curly
hair, which was strange, cause they were dark. They had dark hair, his mother. His mother was a
lovely, beautiful-looking woman. She was lovely. That’s it.
l: Well thanks Ada, for taking part and telling us all you know.
AM: Sorry I can’t tell you any more.
NB: Ada talks a little more about the area as it used to be, particularly the local shops, and people
being relocated after the war.

Anna Reid
Born 15 years after the disaster, Anna grew up knowing that her great
grandmother died on the underground steps. Years later she took her nan to see the plaque in Bethnal Green, and visited old friends of hers. Listening to their stories brought out the poignancy and relevance of the disaster to Anna and what was a ‘bit of history’ became stories of real people.
hrlemarial Frojecf
. ,.. ._ i:: ,
lvternorial Froject
BethnalGreen Memorial Proiect: Oral Histcry Summary
Catalogue Number: lnterviewee/s:
Ada Magnus
lnterviewer/s:
Philip and Amy
Date of lnterview:
28 January 2014
Location: Length of interview:
25 minutes
Any other infc
Time:
0:00
1:30
3:40
6:15
8:30
10:00
11;00
L4:00
L7:00
L8:45
Summary;
lntroduction, Description of Ada’s childhood and family background. She hardly
attended school until she was fourteen, when she left school to work.
Ada remembers being bombed out for the first time. She and her sister found shelter
with relatives for a while.
At fourteen, Ada started working as a machinist. She describes how several of her
friends and colleagues died in the Bethnal Green tube disaster. She was attending a film
screening that night.
After the film, Ada went home and later went to an air raid shelter, while some of her
friends ended up going to the tube station. Ada didn’t hear about what had happened
until the next day.
Ada can’t remember much about the days before the disaster, She recalls going to the
shelter frequently, windows covered in cardboard, and queuing up for rations. She also
recalls getting some good on the black market.
She is aware of the guns stationed in Barmy Park around the time of the disaster and
that they are assumed to have caused the noise that started the disaster.
After the disaster, Ada moved on with life. She describes her relationship with a young
pilot who also died. She also remembers a pub that was later destroyed by bombs.
Ada never had to identify any of the bodies, and turned down the offer to see her
friend Doreen for a last time.
She speaks about her family history in cabinet making.
Ada tells a story about going to the Bingo and running into her brother’s friend and how
they had been affected by the disaster.
I
22:34 She remembers a row of little shops, including a fish and chip shop, that no longer exist.
She speaks about how people were scattered and relocated as a result of the war, and
she lost touch with many.
ffi*el-*r*a$ ffir**r”r
Memorial Project
Bethnal Green Memorial Project lnteruiew Transcript
lnterviewee (AM): Ada Magnus
lnterviewer {l}: Philip Sunshine, Amy Cooper
Date: 28 January 2014
Location: Ada’s home
l: Hello, this is Philip Sunshine with Amy Cooper interviewing Ada Magnus for the Bethnal Green
Memorial Trust on the 28th Jan 2014. First of all I’d like to thank you Ada for taking part in this.
AM: You’re quite welcome.
l: I’d like to ask you to describe your early life and background of your life and family. School, leisure
and work.
AM: I was born in Russia Lane and Mowlem Street school, then the war broke out. I did go to school
for a little while at Whitstable, then my mum, I was the youngest, so she didn’t, she came in, I never
went to school til I left, nearly fourteen. So I suppose really I’m a dumbhead. {laughs)
l: What about your friends? Playing out on the street?
AM: You couldn’t, could you? You used to get bombing raids in the day. I wasn’t kept in, I used to go
out, but you couldn’t go far because you had to go in the shelters. We used to go to – I did get
bombed out in 1940, the first lot of bombing. I lived on the corner of Russia Lane and Robinson
Road. And we had to get out right away, we were but in Globe Road school. And my dad was a
dustman. And we weren’t in there for long, couple of hours after the night. We wasn’t pulled out, we
walked out. He said to my mum, I found a place. lt was in Treadway Street, but that didn’t have any
back on either. But he wouldn’t stay in the – I can’t remember what it was called now, but you went
there when you got bombed out. They take em in churches and all that. lt was just for when you was
bombed out. But only when you were bombed out, he was quite an independent man, And we
stayed there and my sister was having a very nervous time. She was getting bad with nerves. And we
went down to my sister in law’s aunt in Whitstable for a little while. Stayed there. Eventually we
came back, and by then they lived in Granby Street, which was a better house but we still had to go
down the shelter every night. And we used to go down Godfrey Phillips, there was a big tobacco
place. Cause my mum worked there, so she was allowed to use this shelter in the night and you
never even heard the bombing down there. I think I was about twelve when we moved to St Jude’s
Road. I was there til I got married. I went to school from there. lt’s Lawdale now, it was Lawrence
then. And I left at fourteen and went to work.
l: What sort of work did you take on?
AM: I went machining at first but it wasn’t so good, I’m not so good with the eyes. And my friend
who got killed was quite bright. She was quite a clever girl. She had a brother that had already been
to Parmiters- when this happened. And I think that what happened with him – I think they mainly
went for him because he was so nervous. And then he became the caller – I don’t know why,
because he was quite a clever fella. He was about three years older than me. He became the caller
for the Bingo in Hackney Road. His name was Tommy Chandler, the same as his father. I was friends
with them. With Doreen more, she had another sister Pat. Tommy and Pat got out of that, they was
in that. Pat I think had done nursing. She was also quite bright, they were quite bright allof them.
(XXX) I didn’t go friends with her like. She’d only live round the corner from me. A very nice quiet
sorta girl she was. And she got killed. lthink she was about thirteen as well, same as us. But she just
turned fourteen, Doreen. And cause her birthday was in January. We’d been to this picture palace, I
think it was King’s Row, I think it was Ronald Reagan, the ex-president, better actor than a
president… I shouldn’t say.
l: Most people would agree with you on that. (laughs)
AM: lliked him.
l: What was this cinema called?
AMr lt was originally called Smarts. That would have been in your dad’s time. And then it was called
The Rex. lt went to The Rex, and then it was the Essoldo I think. lt was only a flat one like the
museum one in Cambridge Heath Road. We came out from there cause the raid went, I better go. I
said alrightthen. lleft herthere because lonly livedthrough Hollybush Gardens in StJude’s Road.
And I never knew no more about it til the next morning, cause we was in the shelter as well. But
apparently they heard a noise, and I’m still not sure which part they was crushed in. I take it it must
have been the first part, because they said they was all crushed on the stairs. And her mother was a
very good-looking woman. She was only young, thirty-something. Very filmstar-ish to me, cause my
murn had me when she was forty, you know what I mean. The only impression I got was my sister,
cause she used to be quite smart and all that, There were dresses then, weren’t there, at that age.
And that was it. And I left her out there, and I didn’t know no more. And Dickie Corbett, the boxer, I
did know his son, he died there.
l: Was that his boxing name, Dickie Corbett? Cause… Richard Coleman, wasn’t he, as well?
AM: They said that was his name, but I never thought of it like that. Just called him Dickie Corbett
And I think Doreen’s mum’s name was Lil, I think. I can’t remember really now, it was such a long
while ago. Although when I go to the library I always go and look at the thing. Always go.
l: So can you tell us a little bit more about Dickie?
AM: No, I didn’t know much about him. I didn’t know much. lf a couple of my brothers would have
been alive, they woulda told you because one of my brothers did box for the Territorials and all that,
you know. And I don’t think Dickie would’ve been as old as him. Cause he was twenty years older
than me, he was the first in the family. But the two or three older ones might have been able to say
something. But they’re all gone now, I’m the only one left out of us.
l: You spoke a bit about the disaster. But leading up to the disaster, what was the days leading up to
the disaster like?
AM: I can’t remember really, just used to go. To be truthful, you had to come out of the shelter early,
get ready. lt wasn’t any life really. Mostly your windows was card boarded up or boxed up. Which to
me was horrible. Absolutely horrible. Like they all have blinds now, and I hate blinds. I won’t have
blinds. Only in the kitchen ‘cos l’d had to have the cooker put near the sink. But other than that I
won’t have blinds. You went to the shelter, you’d come home, they went to work or to school, you’d
done what you could. Sometimes you just got cleared up, there’d been a little bit of bombing near
you, yourd come home to an houseful of dust and soot again. That’s what it was. Then you had to
queue up for a lot of things. You know, you got rations, but you got to queue up for some things.
Unless you got a bit black market, which we all did. But we couldn’t let my dad know, cause he was
wounded in the First World War he wouldn’t touch nothing like that. But we would. But we never let
him know.
l: What was it like after, who were people blaming?
AM; Well, they reckon – ldon’t know, we did have the guns in the park, in the little park. We call it
the Barmy Park, it’s where the library is. Someone said it was one of them, and someone shouted
and they all rushed. That was as far as I know. And another little bit, my friend who got killed, her
father, Tommy Chandler, married Stella Odell’s mother after. How that came about I don’t know. I
don’t think I seen him after she was buried.
l: You talk about your friend – what was her full name?
AM: Doreen. Doreen Chandler, don’t know if she had a second name.
l: Was it spoken about in the community afterwards, the disaster?
AM: lt was a big deal at the time, you know. I was really upset cause we got quite close friends. But
it’s like everything else, time goes on. I had a young fellow next-door-but-one from me, aircraft pilot,
l’m not sure what he was, pilot or… can’t think of the word, when they do allthe sections. You
know? Like geography, but they sort out… navigator, ain’t it? He was killed then, he was about
twenty-four. He got buried from the street, St Jude’s Street. He had like the flag and the whatsit all
come down for him like, you know. There were so many things really happened that you know.
There was a pub along the road, The College Arms, that got bombed. And there used to be two
young boys in there, it was… he got killed. His sister used to go and help him. Course she had her
two little boys with her. One’s nearly as old as me. The other one died, Dickie. And then she had a
younger one after the war. Her husband come home and he died. They got bombed out. But thank
God they got out of it her and the boys but Harry got killed. But people was getting killed
everywhere, so you know. When we got bombed out there was a fish shop. Just round the corner
from Russia Lane. There used to be a pub on the corner called The Albert. And this fish shop was
always busy, His brother worked in there as well. You know when you’re a kid you’re going: Can we
have some crackling? They used to give it, you know. Everyone knew him. And then after the war
she’d go… I don’t know if it was one of her family. She survived the bombing in Cambridge Heath
Road, just along the fish shop there. Then I don’t know what happened to her, I suppose she died.
They were nice people. I think Manny’s brother died, I think he had a brother work there as well.
(brief pause)
AM: ls that it?
l: With the disaster, did you identify the bodies? Did you ever hear about stories?
AM: No. They asked me if I wanted to see Doreen. She was buried from her grandmother’s house
and that was round the corner from us in Poyser Street. But I wouldn’t. When I was young, you don’t
associate death when you’re young. You think you’re immortal, don’t you? All of a sudden you
realise you’re not. (laughs)
(pa use)
l: Can you tell us a little bit more about the Krays?
AM: No I can’t really because I only knew the mother, but only as a neighbour to say hello to and her
sister. I didn’t know Rose. That was Billy Wilsher’s mum. What was the other sister? There was
another sister. Always used to talk to her, she used to come along with Charles Dickens House. I
can’t think of her name now. You forget things when you get older. That’s about it. I can’t tell you
anything about’em. My brother, cause he’d lived there quite a while, was quite friendly with them.
Not really with him so much as with Charlie Kray. Charlie Kray and his wife used to come over to
their house and talk. They were villains and that’s it, wasn’t they.
l: Did you hear things about them at that time?
A: No. Funnily enough no-one local did talk about ’em really. I suppose if you’re used to someone,
unless they interfere with you or something like that, I don’t think you take any notice. My
grandmother’s shop was round the corner here, they was in there for eighty odd years.
l: What shop was that?
AM: lt’s got an Asian gown shop now. They just used to make wreaths and all that. Actually, their
name is in the.,, one of the books of workshops, I can’t remember his name. A Jewish man. I know I
got it out of the library. They mentioned him there, and like people that used to make furniture, bits
of furniture. Two of my brothers, that’s what they done, they made furniture. Tables and that. One
of my brothers I think done a trolley for Princess Anne. Polished it. He was a polisher, and he was an
absolutely lovely man as well. That’s what they done.
l: A lot of carpentry, all the bars would have… you know, the bars would be made in mahogany and
things like that.
AM: Well I think all of Shoreditch used to be cabinet makers and that, I know my mum’s father had a
workshop in, you know when you cross over from Columbia Road, not Cremer Street. You can just go
up the next one,.. I can’t remember the name of that now neither. I can walk it. But can’t think of the
name of it. Kingsland Road. He had a workshop there. They lived over that way more. You know. And
they had a great big family, but I hardly knew any of them. They all make their own way, don’t they.
Or they did. I don’t know if they still do. (laughs)
l: With the Krays, when did you first hear about any trouble with them then?
AM: I think I lived here by then. I suppose my brother would have heard more but he never ever said
anything to us. But as I said, when they live local… they used to use the pub over the road we used
to use. You never… no-one took no notice of them, One of the vicars was always with them. The
church over there, St Matthews. That was it. Other than that I didn’t know nothing about him. I
think Billy Wilsher’s mum was Rose, and I knew him, Billy well. lt was really through him that Charlie
Kray and Dolly used to go over. Because he really was my brother’s friend, him and his wife Nora.
Even his grandson, one of them used to live down in the bottom. That’s as much as I know, really. I
used to always speak to his mum. His gran and grandfather used to be there, You know where them
new houses been, them self-build houses. That’s where they used to live in the little house there,
right next to Cheshire Street near the baths you know. That’s where they used to live. Other than
that I don’t know nothing about them.
{brief pause)
AM: He stopped in front of me. I was never a smatl person. He stood right in front of me, so I said,
well hello, don’t you know your old mate’s brother, I said looking at him. He had the most beautiful
curly hair, blond hair. He never had a hair on his head. Whether it was the bombing or the tube
disaster I don’t know. But I said, blimey, I said what happened, I said I didn’t recognise… I didn’t.
Although his face hadn’t changed really when I looked at him. But I never even associated with him.
It just shows you… he never had no hair. ,And I never kept in touch with Pat which was my fault really
cause she used to write to me. But in the finish ljust let it go, which was wrong really of me, but
that’s what happened.
l: lf you could just go back at the beginning of that story, abut being in the Eingo? lf you could just
tell us again?
AM: lt’s on there, innit?
l: We didn’t have the beginning…
AM: Oh well, I went to the Bingo with my sister. And I went down to buy ice cream in the interval.
And he came along and stopped in front of me and said, don’t you know your old friend’s brother?
And I said, who it was, but he never had no hair. Cause when I knew him he had lovely blond curly
hair, which was strange, cause they were dark. They had dark hair, his mother. His mother was a
lovely, beautiful-looking woman. She was lovely. That’s it.
l: Well thanks Ada, for taking part and telling us all you know.
AM: Sorry I can’t tell you any more.
NB: Ada talks a little more about the area as it used to be, particularly the local shops, and people
being relocated after the war.

Babette Clark
As an 11 year-old in 1943, Babette and her family regularly used the Bethnal Green underground shelter. On that night, when her mum ‘gave a funny little nervous cough’, she knew it meant she and her sister would be told to get their bundles together and get to the bus stop. They just missed one bus and were consequently not far down the underground stairs when the crush began.

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BethnalGreen Memorial Project: Oral History Summary
Catalogue Number: lnterviewee/s:
Babette Clark
lnterviewerfs:
David Williams, Amy Cooper
Date of lnterview:
9 October 2013
Location:
Romford
Length of interview:
36 minutes
Any other infc
Time:
0:00
2:00
5:00
6:00
8:00
10:15
13:00
Summary; (Part 1)
lntroduction. Babs has been happy to speak about the disaster in the past, while other
family members were not.
Babs speaks about experiencing WW2 bombings as a child, quizzing her mother about
her experience of WWl, and later speaking to her own children about the war. She took
shelter regularly in the tube station. Brief evacuation to Devon during the Blitz.
Babs’ father was a civilian driver for the Navy, he transferred to Plymouth to escape the
Blitz, but the family returned to London after Plymouth was also bombed and stayed
until the end of the war.
Details about the tube station shelter: bunks, a library, ‘typieal’East End community
structures. Babs recalls the communal bucket toilets in the tunnel, the lack of personal
hygiene, and the resulting bad smell.
The family’s bundles were always packed, ready for evacuation. They included food if
the alarm allowed enough time. After any big raid in Germany, a respective raid in
London \ /as expected and the family would sleep in the tube station. Otherwise, they
used a more provisional shelter in the yard.
3 March L943: Babs remembers the night clearly. She was L1″ years old at the time.
Warning sirens around 8pm, the family took a bus to the shelter and queued for a
space in the tunnel, which was completely dark due to the blackout and wet due to
rain. She remembers searchlights and rockets, and resulting panic of people trying to
get into the shelter in the dark,
Babs describes how she later learned that the woman and baby at the bottom of the
stairs tripped, and were trampled by the crowd. She recalls tripping, and being pulled
up and out by her sister and an air raid warden. Her sister, wanting to return to find
their mother, was pointed to a room filled with bodies from the disaster. Meanwhile,
their mother had survived elsewhere, and they were reunited.
15:45
l-7:00
18:00
0:00
0:45
t:45
8:00
10:00
13:00
3:00
5:00
Babs saw countless bodies lying on the pavement outside the tube in the rain, waiting
to be taken to the morgue.
Babs’ father, who had been searching for his family in the tunnel, is reunited with them.
Upon returning to school, Babs finds several of her classmates missing, some of whom
had been killed in the disaster.
{Break) (Part 2)
Babs speaks of the disaster being hushed up by the government.
She tries to recall the names of and details about her dead and injured classmates.
Memories of the disaster faded after the war. Babs became a dressmaking apprentice.
She remembers Bethnal Green tube station opening, but can’t recall any contemporary
com m unity remembra nce efforts.
Babs learns about Bethnal Green memorial service from the paper, which she attended.
Babs agrees that people’s experiences have less impact on their children’s and more on
their grandchildren’s generation. She recalls loving her own grandmother’s stories, and
how her grandchildren took interest in her husband’s military service.
She considers herself an East Ender, despite having lived elsewhere for many years, and
loves visiting the area. She defends her memory of the way of life in the Bethnal Green
community, and doesn’t like the ways in which it has changed, She describes herself as
someone old-fashioned, who doesn’t like change.
Babs speaks about some examples of community support in Bethnal Green, and doubts
the same support still exists between neighbours today.
She speculates about the community ties that might exist in today’s East End immigrant
communities. The interviewer speaks about London’s history of immigration. Both
discuss where various parts of London’s population will move to next, and comment on
how difficult it would be today to cover up a similar disaster.
h’lern*rial Prcjeet
Bethnal Green ililemsrial Project lntersie$r Transcript
lnterviewee (BC): Babette Clark
lnterviewer {l}: David Williams, Amy Cooper
Date: 9 October 2013
Location: Collier Row, Romford
{Part 1i
l: Ok, here we are in Collier Row and this is an interview with Babs Clark, who was the youngest
survivor… ?
BC: No, no, lwasn’t…
l: Oh no of course, if you were born in 1931.
BC: I wasn’t the youngest, there was babies saved,
l: Right, l’ll tell you where l’i[ start. Let’s start, say, six years ago. Because that’s not very fong ago,
and that’s forty years, fifty years after it all happened…
BC: Sixty years.
l: Sixty years. Did it fade from your mind in that sixty years? What happened in between times? Did
you just get on with your life or what?
BC: [Clip: Long-term impact] [Clip:Culturalsilencing]Yeah,ldefinitelygot on with me life. lcould
talk about it to people, you know, if anything ever came up about Bethnal Green when we were
living here. People say: Oh, did you hear anything about the disaster? And I’d say, yeah, I was in it.
And that was it, and push it to one side. My sister, who was sixteen at the time, she would never
ever talk about it. Never. And my mum didn’t very much. But apart from that, no, I mean. I told my
husband about it. One of those things that had happened in the past.
l: How old were you at the time?
BC: Eleven.
l: Maybe it was just – I hate to say this – a kind of childish adventure, wasn’t it? lt was something
that was happening?
BC: Yes, yes. People have said, weren’t it terrifying in the war? But as kids, you didn’t think of it.
[Clip: Air raids] Alright, you were frightened, we didn’t have an Anderson shelter, cause we only had
a back yard. So we had a Morrison shelter. That was one of those metal contraptions. And you’d be
lying in there some nights if the warning hadn’t gone too late, and you’d hear the guns go or the
bombs comin’, but apart from that, as kids, you don’t look upon it like… it was like, before the war
started, Second World War started, we’d say to our mum, what was it like in the war? And she used
to tell us stories, we used to love that. And then my boys were saying that to me, What was it like in
the war, mum? But I can only talk about it from a child’s point of view. You’d go to school in the
morning and there’d be lumps of shrapnel you’d pick up in playground and who had the most, and
have fights over it and all this sort of thing. But no, I can’t say. lt wos frightening that night with all
the pushing, but apart from that, no.
l: Tell me about the shelter, because this was a shelter that was – it took, what, 2000 people down
the tube station?
BC: The tube, yeah.
I: Had you been down there many times? Before that fateful night?
BC: Oh yeah, we used to sleep down there quite a lot. Cause although we were evacuated, sent
away for evacuation to Devon, that was like privately cause my mum had a relative living down near
Torquay and she sent my sister and I away. And when the Blitz started, my father got worried about
my mum. And he got her to come down, so that was how we coms to move nearer into Torquay
itself. And I think all her family arrived, grandmother and aunts and uncles and that. What was I
gonna say? lt’s gone. I get these lapses. (laughs)
l: We allget these lapses.
BC: lt’s terrible, it is. But mum, she was an East Ender. Suddenly there was a lull, the blitz ended and
there was a lull. We moved backto London, my mum and l, left my sisterthere livingwith my
grandmother. She didn’t want to come back. She’d just started work with a prudential insurance
company that had been evacuated down there. So then we came back, and then the bombing
started, So my dad said, you better go back again, so we went back to Torquay again, because in
between all this we’re going to school like normal and pryin’ in bomb sites and all sorts of… and then
we went back to Torquay and the bombing started and mum got worried about my father. He was a
civilian driver for the Royal Navy. So she got him to put in for a transfer down to Plymouth. He
arrived there just when the Plymouth Blitz went on. So poor devil had gone through all the Blitz in
London, the bombing, and arrives down there, and that was when it stopped a bit in London so mum
said, right, we’re goin back home again. Come back home. We were there when the doodlebug
started, but we stayed there for that. Mum said * my mum could cuss – I’m not going down there
again. We stayed there in London all through the doodlebugs and the rockets, right until the end of
the war.
l: The area down at the tube, there were bunks, there was a library… it was like a community, like an
East End community underground.
BC: fClip: tube shelter] lt was. I don’t know if you realise, but they never ever had trains come
through because it was just before the start of the Second World War they finished the tunnel into
Bethnal Green. So there was no tracks, anything laid. And that was how we all come to sleep in the
tunnels. I think there was a bit of dissension about letting people go in there, but eventually… oh
yeah, it was a big community and everybody knew everybody. lt was a typical East End affair, with
everybody match in with each other.
l: I had a conversation yesterday, as I say, with Bob Saxon. He said he didn’t like the smell down
there.
BC: No, it was horrible. I can remember that.
l; We can’t record smells, but…
BC: [Clip: tube shelter] No. Well, there was no… as you got to the bottom of the stairs which is now
the escalator, I think there was communal toilets there but they were only the chemical ones. Of
course the ones you got right down in the tunnel were buckets with chemical in it. lt did whiff down
there, believe me.
l: And allthose bodies as well.
BC: I know. lt wasn’t like now, people bathing or showering every day. lt was a once a month sort of
thing, whether you needed it or not.
l: But everybody got on, didn’t they?
BC: Oh yeah, it was typical East End, it really was the East End at its best, believe me, it really was.
l: Did you take food down there?
BC: I suppose a lot of them must have done, lf the warning started early, eight o’clock or something
like that, mum would say, come and get your bundles, which were always made up, sittin in the
front room, and we’d go down there. We lived in Old Ford Road, facing what used to be the Lido,
that part of Victoria Park, so we weren’t far from… it was called the… where St Barnabas church was,
not Salmon and Ball, I can’t think of the name of the pub now.
l: On the corner. lt was the Salmon and…
BC: No, Salmon and Ball, that was at Bethnal Green itself. This was down where I lived. The Earl of
Aberdeen” We were at the St Barnabas church here, Earl of Aberdeen over there. But it was always
known as the Aberdeen. And it wasn’t all that far. But it was only, we didn’t used to go down there
every night, it was only if you kind of knew that there’d been a big raid in Germany, you knew within
a few nights, you were gonna get a big raid. As I say, the Blitz had finished by this time, we weren’t
living there then, thank God, every night, when it was happening when they were doin the docks in.
But if it went later and we were already in bed, as I say, we had a Morrison shelter we used to get in,
which we didn’t really like, but it was something to get in.
l: That big iron contraption with the grills. And if you sat up too quickly you bashed your head on the
ceiling.
BC: When ours was taken down I think they found there was six nests of mice all underneath. Cause
my mum kept wondering why the pillows were shredding and alf that. Well while we were asleep
the mice were havin a go. {laughs)
l: Let’s go on to the night of March 3, L943,can you remember it vividly or does it sort of…
BC: fClip: disaster] No, it’s one night I can really remember. I don’t know why, but lcan remember it.
The warning went about eight o’clock, just after eight o’clock. Sounded like that. Mum said, right,
gave a funny little nervous cough, and sald, right. My sister and I used to look at each other and go,
she’s gonna tell us to get the bundles, and she did, and off we trekked. We got round to the, the
Aberdeen pub and a bus had just left which my mum wasn’t at all happy. Few cuss words” And all of
a sudden another one came trundling along. Realise now, if we’d gone on that first bus, we’d have
been killed. We would’ve been right in it. We got the other bus, got down to the tube, There was a
queue of people end you’ve gotta realise, it was absolutely pitch black cause of the blackout. lt was
raining, it was a horrible cold damp night so you couldn’t even get any light from the moon. Which
was a good thing. Cause if it was a bombers moon you’d have had the planes over. And we were all
just queuing up to go in, and everyone talking to each other, and search lights went up although
there was no planes. But I can remember the search lights. Going up and crossing and all that. And
then all of a sudden there was terrible noise. I can still hear it like, like hundreds of rockets goin up in
the air. lt was awful, the noise. Really loud. lt went right through your ears. And as it went they
whistled like some of the bombs used to when they came down.
That was when people started pushing, and of course by this time the queue had got quite long
because they had given out in the cinemas that there was a raid on, whoever wanted to go used to
go, if not they stayed there. 5o of course they turned out, and that was when the pushing started.
Unbeknown to us, some poor woman at the bottom of the stairs, cause there was nineteen steps
down, and then you come to this landing and then you turned right into what is now the big booking
hall. And it was this nineteen steps which had no handrail, they were wooden steps, and they were
slippery from the rain. Cause all you had was a iittle doorway into it where a policeman used to
stand, but he wasn’t there for some reason that night. And you just had this little tiny blue light. 5o I
mean, there was no light, and even down the stairs, you kind of knew where you were going. And
unbeknown to us, this poor woman carrying a baby or a child had tripped at the bottom, had pulled
another man with her, and everybody was all goin on top of her, and that was her finished. They
were evidently piled high right to the ceiling on this landing, all the way back up the stairs. I can
remember hanging on to my sister’s coat, and we got near enough to the top of the stairs, and I can
remember falling over, I don’t know what it was, but I tripped over something.
And Jean pulled me up, which was good of her, cause you know what it’s like, elder sister and
younger sister, you don’t get on. I know somebody, must’ve been an air raid warden, pulled Jean
out. Cause I can remember her saying, I’ve got my sister here, l’ve got my sister here. We were sent
over to the Salmon and Ball, there was a shelter. Funny place, shelter right underneath the railway
arch. We got over there, was a lot of people that we knew. I hadn’t been long out of hospital having
me appendix out, and Jean sat me down and said, you sit there. She evidently was goin round asking
if anyone had seen our mum, cause we didn’t know what had happened to her, where she’d gone.
The air raid warden said to my sister – I didn’t find this out until, crikey, I’m not sure she was dead
when I found this out through my niece – they made her go in that room and said, she might be in
there, and it was all dead bodies that Jean had to go in and look at. They had nowhere to put all the
bodies that they were bringing out. Thank God mum wasn’t there, she’d been pulled out and taken
over to the church.
How we all got together, I don’t know. But suddenly, we was with our mum, and mum sayin, come
on, we’re goin home. I think we lost our bundles, which mum was quite upset about. We got home,
walked home. Early hours of the morning. I can vaguely remember looking across at where the tube
was, and there was all the people lying on the pavement. And I said to my mum, hey mum, look,
they’re all gonna get wet, I assumed they were all tired, But they were bodies that they had brought
out and laid them there. Cause the ambulances couldn’t take them away quickly enough to the
different morgues.
We got near enough home to Road and happened to see a policeman who lived a few doors up the
road said, you’ve been up there in the tube, he said, go indoors, l’ll come with you, my wife will
make you a cup of tea. Cause he was going back on duty out there. Evidently on the way up he saw
my dad. As I say, my dad had been a civilian driver for the Navy. I don’t know where his depot was,
but it had come through on the – however they communicated with them. And of course dad
thought, they were down there, so of course he dropped everything and he came to the tube and he
was helping to bring the dead out. Looking for us. And that was how eventually he came wandering
home, saw this policeman, he said, I can’t find them. Oh, don’t worry, Mr Nichols, they’re indoors
having a cup of tea. ln dad came. Big hugs and kisses and tears. I was only eleven and my dad was a
r
big man, very tall, very big. He was like a gentle giant. What I couldn’t get over was my dad crying.
My big dad crying. What’s my dad crying for? I realise now, why.
We’ve all gone indoors and gone to bed, and my mum got my sister up for work the next morning,
and me out to school. And I remember getting dressed and saying to mum, hey mum, look at this. I
was bruised from my shoulders right down, and so was my sister. So was mum. Anyway. I think I
went to school, there was quite a few kids there that weren’t there. Some had been killed that night,
others hadn’t gotten to school. They sent me home when they knew that l’d been in it. My aunt
came over to see what had happened, she lived in South London. And she phoned up the prudential
and said, would you mind sending Jean Sinclair home.
l: We’ll leave it there for the moment just to give you a bit of a breath.
BC: That was long, wasn’t it.
l: lt was very good.
{Part 2)
BC: lt was only in latter years that I’ve heard that it was hushed up on.”. Winston Churchill hushed it
up cause it was for the morale of the people…
l: Did your parents talk about it? Were you aware that they were talking about it at home?
BC; No. Life just went on as normal, if you get me, if it was normal in those days. I mean, to kids, it
was normal, that was what you were living in.
l: But you went to school, there were friends that were no longer there?
BC: There was quite a few from my school who got killed in it. I can’t remember their names – I’ve
often looked at the names of the children, you know, on the list of who got killed, but I can’t place
any. Could’ve all been in my class. But, yeah, there were several children injured in it, I can
remember one boy comin’ in on crutches. But there again, with the bombing and all that, you were
used to kids with crutches. I mean, I fell over one night running when the air raid started, and I broke
the bone on the side of that foot, and my aunt gave me a piggy back to Bethnal Green Hospital, and
they just strapped it up, green stick fracture. I went to school hobbling, and I went to school. Kids
said, what’d you do? And I said, I fell over when the raid was on last night. And you just accepted it.
l; Did it then just fade away after the war and everything? Never talked about it?
BC: Oh yeah. Yeah. Whether it was because when the war just ended, I’d just got a job up in the
West End, I was an apprentice in dressmaking. [Clip: long-term impact] lt was quite a few months
after the war ended when they opened Bethnal Green tube station, and that was when I used to
think about it. I used to get off the bus at the Salmon and Ball, run down the steps, and that was
when I would think, this is where it all happened. And I suppose that helped to keep it going in my
mind. But apart from that you just got on with life and lived it and forgot about it.
l: So there was a sense in Bethnal Green that something had happened, but you were a child and
obviously you took a different view of it, but there wasn’t a great deal of talk about it. Things
happening in the school playground, and people lost their mums and dads, that sort of thing?
BC: Oh no. No. I mean, I didn’t know any children from our school that had lost a parent in it.
Whether they could’ve done, I don’t know. But you just didn’t, and that was it.
l: Tell me about the time when you saw the little piece in the paper.
BC: lClip: SHMT founding] When I contacted Alf? lt was just in one of the little free papers. I was
flickin through it. I think it was entitled Bethnal Green Memorial. lt caught my eye and I just read
that there was this memorial service at St John’s on the Green in Bethnal Green. I forget the actual
day, it was the beginning of March, and contact Alf. Gave his phone number, so I phoned him. Found
out when it actually was and all that, and he said, when you’re there, come and let me know who
you are. Which I did, but he just passed me over to Sandra, he said, you wanna go and see Sandra.
That was how I come to go to… I think there’d been one memorial service the year before, so I
wasn’t really at the beginning of it, cause Sandra didn’t know anything about it. Only through her
mother, hearing her mother talk to a reporter or something, but she didn’t know anything about it at
all. I made myself known to Sandra and she took my e-mail address, and it just blossomed on from
there. I would consider Sandra a friend, she really is a lovely person.
l: (to second interviewer) Have you got any questions that you can think about? Cause you come
from a different generation, and so therefore there may be things that l’ve completely overlooked.
12: Not that I can think of at the moment. I’ve been making notes.
l: The reason I was just making that point is that as we talked about earlier is that the experiences of
older people don’t seem to have a great deal of impact on children, but they have an impact on
grandchildren. Would you agree or disagree?
BC: Oh no, I agree with that. I do agree with that.
l: Why do you think it is that grandchildren have interest in what your life was like?
BC: I don’t know. Whether it’s – I used to love hearin stories from my grandmother. About when she
was small. Cause you don’t think of an old lady as being young, if you get me, you know. And get her
to talk about when she lived on the farm in Chingford. Which in her days of childhood would’ve been
miles out in the country, wouldn’t it.
l: You don’t have farms in Chingford anymore, do you?
BC: No, no. Roads, but not farms. I think it’s… I was just gonna try and explain it. Maybe it’s because
grandchildren, let’s face it, I think they like to listen to grandparents. More than what your own
children did. My boys used to laugh when we used to watch Dad’s Army on television when it very
first came on, when they were young. Was you in that, dad? To my husband. l’d say, your father was
in the Army. But to them, it was always in Dad’s Army.ll was that sort of thing. My grandson, I
mean, he was only young when Eric died, but he did see a photograph of my husband in his army
uniform. And he said, oh, when was that, grandad? And he said, that was when I was in the army?
He said, what, the proper Army? He said, yeah. lt was only his national service, but still, it sounded
good, didn’t it. What did you do, grandad? What could Eric say? The war ended, he did his time in
Germany, he wouldn’t go into what he got up to out there at the end of the war, which they could
get away with murder. (laughs) He said, well, I was in charge of the laundry, which tickled my
grandson.
l; You’ve actually summed it up very well there. The other thing that l’d like to ask you – you would
consider yourself an East Ender?
BC: Oh yeah, although l’ve lived here all this time, I am an Fast Ender. I wouldn’t like to live back
there again. By God, um. Well l’m like a tiger defending its cubs. Not like to live back there again. I
like going out there, but I’m glad when l’m on that train leaving it. Because it’s not my Bethnal Green
anymore. You walk down Bethnal Green Road, and maybe I shouldn’t say it but you’re looked at as if
you shouldn’t be in their country.
l: You said, ‘l defend it’, when I asked you the question about the East End. What are you defending
then?
BC: The way it used to be, not what it is now, but the way it used to be?
l: lsn’t that an age thing, when you get older?
BC: Oh yeah, definitely an age thing, yes. I don’t think I could ever defend Romford. Used to be a nice
place when we first moved there, but I wouldn’t say it was great, not like I do about Bethnal Green.
l: So you’re defending a way of life…
BCr Yes, definitely. The way of life, the way we were brought up. The camaraderie of it out there. lt
was the community, and I mean, I can always remember a man up our road went into prison. I don’t
know what he did, I was only a kid. Couldn’t have been anything really bad. But she had three
children, and she always used to say once he’d come out, she said it in front of him, and I could
remember her telling my mum this, and I was earwiggin’. I gotta tell you, mate, me and the kids
never once went without a dinner. When you were away. Cause all the neighbours all used to. I
remember my mum saying to me, take that up to Mrs Jones, she ain’t got nothin. And it’d be say,
three dinners in plates.
l: Do we like change?
BC: I don’t. (laughs) l’m old-fashioned. I mean, I don’t know. lt’s funny, I’ve seen it change down this
road. I’ve got a friend round the corner, she moved here. Her son must have been about two. My
youngest boy was about two and a half and their garden used to back on the end of mine and the
boys used to play together, so I’ve known them many, many years. And it was quite a close-knit
community down here, the kids used to play in the street, if you saw one of them you’d come in and
you’d see one of the kids, you’d say, where’s your mum? Oh, she’s out shoppin and dad’s at work.
And you’d say, well you come in here with me. You didn’t leave the kids out there, and you’d go, not
that we had telephones, but I’d send my eldest boy. See if Mrs so-and-so is in, if not, whatever his
name can have dinner with us. This is how it was. You never worried about your kids being left sittin
on the doorstep. I only heard it about three weeks ago, three weeks after it happened, this
particular son is fifty now, he’s been in a very very bad motorbike accident. He had to be air lifted to
London Hospital and that is where he still is. So I phoned down there and I spoke to his mum and I
said, I’ve only just found out, why didn’t you let me know? She said, well, I didn’t like to knock.
We’ve been friends all these years, Vera. She said, I know. But that atmosphere is gone, innit. Don’t
say that between you and me. lt’s three weeks since he’s been like he was, I’ve only just found out. I
said, don’t you dare leave me out of it. I said, you know what I am, I’m a nosy devil. I wanna know. I
said, I’ve watched that boy grow up.
l: You’re talking about East End values, aren’t you?
BC: Yes. We haven’t even got that down here now. I mean, I’ve got very good neighbours. lf I go
away I know they keep an eye on the house. But l’ve often wondered what would happen if I
dropped dead or something like that, l’d lie here until somebody thought, we ain’t seen her about
for a few days. lt’s gone, what it used to be like in the East End, and it’s even gone from here. Who
knows. With the Asian the families up there at the East End, they might have their own community
now, And that camaraderie. But I don’t know.
l: They do.
BC: What, they look out for each other.
I: They do. The great thing about London, about parts of Britain and certainly the East End is that it is
continually changed over 2000 years, with different groups coming in. Whether they were
Huguenots, whether they were the lrish, whether they were the Jews, continually coming in.
Settling, establishing their own communities and cultures, and then moving on again. And that will
continue to happen as we go through the next generation. You remember a particular period in
time, and you remember it with affection.
BC: Yes.
l: And I daresay that the Jewish population there, many of whom have moved away to Stamford Hill
and beyond, they remember it with affection. Because it isn’t like it is when I was there.
BC: No, especially down Brick Lane, no, it’s not,
l: That will happen when the Bangladeshis move on, the Somalis move on. But it will be a long, long
time before that happens, and that is usually what the East End and what London is all about. This
great sort of melting pot of people coming in, establishing what seems to be an overwhelming
presence, but then gradually moving out.
BC: I wonder where they’ll move to. Makes you wonder, dinnit. The East End has moved out Essex
way. South London moved out Brighton way. I don’t know where North or West went, never really
thought of it.
l: lt’s a very interesting subject. And you’ve been a very interesting subjecf so thank you for giving us
your time. Very interesting, thank you very much indeed.
BC: Oh, I do talk a lot. Might have been a load of tripe.
l: lt was not a load of tripe.
(Brief exchange between interviewers)
l: The events of that night and the subsequent cover-up are very well known.
BC: Oh yes.
l: Very well known, But I think what is interesting is really life in the East End at the time. How could
you cover up something like that at the time? lf you take our world today, if anything like that would
happen? Wow. Everybody would know, there would be the blame game. The classic case that we
know of our modern times is Hillsborough. And yet here we have a situation which in a sense is like
Hillsborough.
BC: l’ve said that all along. I’m glad they are, don’t get me wrong, but they’re getting all the
attention, we’re not. Once a year vre might get attention, when we have the memorial. And we did
get a lot of publicity this March, only because it was the 70th anniversary and it was all happening,
but come next year, it’ll be the 71’t anniversary. We’re not going to have that amount of media cover
for that, I don’t think we will. I’d like to think we would.

Barbara Bittle
A very young child born at the beginning of the Second World War, Barbara
only much later understood the significance of her father’s role in the disaster. Police Sergeant Richard Sharrock, based at Bethnal Green Police station, was on duty that night. He was sent to the underground station where he was one of the team moving bodies from the steps.

Memorial Prcject
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Bethnal Green MemsrialProject: Oral History Summary
Catalogue Number: lnterviewee/s:
Barbara Bittle
lnterviewer/s:
Dvora Liberman, Caroline Randall
Date of lnterview:
22 October 2013
Location: Length of interview:
37 minutes
Any other info
L. 20
Time:
0:00
1:30
5:30
7:00
9:45
17:00
19:00
21.:34
23:00
Summary:
lntroduction: Barbara was born in April 39 in Leytonstone at her family home.
Barbara knew about her father’s role in the disaster early on, but learned about the
memorial when her son, who lives in Bethnal Green, brought home one of the flyers
asking for donations for the Memorial Trust.
Barbara’s father was a police sergeant who helped clear the injured and dead from the
tube station. He didn’t speak much about it later and became very ill as a result, and
Barbara learned about the details from her mother. She doesn’t recall him receiving any
form of support.
Barbara’s father later died of bowel cancer, which she links to his trauma-induced
illness after the disaster.
Barbara remembers the war years more generally, and about the time her family spent
in evacuation in Lancashire.
Barbara speaks about how her parents met and built a life together. Her mother found
it difficult to make friends when moving to London and felt isolated and depressed. Her
father joined the police to follow his engineering career, but wasn’t cut out for the job
and changed professions in his forties.
Barbara pieced together little pieces of information about the disaster as a child, as her
parents didn’t like to speak about it.
Barbara speaks about the way she and her brother were affected by the aftermath of
the disaster, mainly through the trauma her parents had suffered.
Barbara remembers the relief and celebration at the end of the war, but recalls her
family dynamics still being troubled.
Barbara speaks about her memories of her grandmothers, both very strong women.
25:20 | She speaks about her marriage and young family in the 1960s, her divorce and meeting
her new partner.
Part 2
0:00 | Barbara tells the story of how she first heard about the memorial being set up; how
delighted she was when she discovered her father’s name would be on the memorial.
She discusses the importance of the memorial for younger generations, and the
memorial design. She regularly attends the memorial services.
07.40 | Recording ends
Seth na I G reen ll,le moria I Fraiect I nterview Tra nscript
lnterviewee {BB): Barbara Bittle
lnterviewer {l}; Dvora Liberman I Caroline Randall
Date: 22 October 2013
Location : Bethnal Green
l: This is Dvora Liberman and Caroline Randall on October 22and we’re here with Barbara Bittle.
BB: Hello.
l: First of all could you tell me when and where you were born?
BB: I was born in April ’39, which was the year the war broke out, in Leytonstone. lt was a home
birth, my mum and dad lived there at the time.
l; That’s really interesting. lt’s a home birth, Could you tell us a little more about what you know
about the family home?
BB: Well, my mother stayed there til she died. lt was her family home, Although she’d come down
from Lancashire to marry my dad. First of all they went to Walthamstow, lots of police went to
Walthamstow because they knew they could get a flat. And just before I was born they moved into
Leytonstone. My brother was aged eight at the time. No sorry, he was four.
l: And could you tell us a bit about your relationship with the Bethnal Green Tube Disaster? So why it
is that we’re here?
BB: I’d always known that my dad [Police Sergeant Richard Sharrock] was involved with an incident
in Bethnal Green, not quite clear exactly all about it. My son now lives in Bethnal 6reen and uses the
tube every day for work and came out of there really surprised to see them giving leaflets and asking
for money. So he got a leaflet for me. Shortly after that we were going away on a holiday and went
to Paddington, and saw them collecting there. And there was Sandra. That’s how we started to think
about it and get involved in some way.
l: [Clip: disaster] Could you tell us about your father, about his role? On that night?
BB; As far as I know he was a police sergeant at the time. He was made a police sergeant a few
months before. And he used to cycle to Bethnal Green from Leytonstone on his bike every day to
work, which we think took about an hour, through the bombing. On that particular day he started at
10pm at night. Obviously he was part of organising and helping clear the bodies from the steps.
l: How did you come to know this?
BB; My brother actually remembers our dad coming home that morning and telling… talking about
r
all the bodies laying out on the road as far as you could see, he described it. And the impact it had on
dad. But as I was only four I wasn’t aware on the actual day or around that time. I learned through
my mother more about it and what happened as I was growing up. Dad didn’t actually speak about it
much. [Clip: long-term impact] I suppose the next connection was dad was very ill with colitis a few
weeks or months after the disaster and spent a lot of time in 5t Thomas’s. My mother used to leave
me with a police wife. She used to go on the tube to Leytonstone to see dad. And I remember this
policeman’s wife picking me up, mum leaving and me screaming my head off. I didn’t want to be left
by mum. That sort of reinforces that something happened, I suppose.
l: And you were a litlle girl and there was that trauma. Your dad had been involved in that disaster
and then he wasn’t well.
BB: That’s right. I mean, I think we recognise that colitis is an emotional disorder. The balance that
probably, that’s how it came through in him, his experience. He didn’t talk about it. lt became a
physical…
l:And was there anyone? lt sounds like he spoke to your mother about it… were there other people,
did he receive any support?
BB: l’m not aware of it. I think mum said as well that he didn’t talk much about it. Perhaps he did
initially and then that was it.
l: What kind of impact do you think the event had on him? Of course you’ve just spoken about the
colitis as a very immediate sort of impact. But long term?
BB: I don’t know. The other part of colitis was that he died of bowel cancer. I think it’s well known
that the scarring that colitis causes can create a cancer in the bowel now. So in actual fact it sort of
came back when he was sixty and he died from the bowel cancer, i think during the intervening
years he buried it a bit. He was that sort of person so I imagine that’s what happened. He didn’t
speak freely about his emotions.
l: lt’s quite common also in that era.
BB: Also we were evacuated. My brother John being eight, he was evacuated to my dad’s mother,
his grandmother. And then when mum decided to take me and she left Leytonstone, she left and she
stayed with her mother in Widnes. So during this time as things were happening to dad we weren’t
around either, he was on his own in Leytonstone.
l: Would you like to speak more about those war years?
BB; I remember we had an Anderson shelter in the front room.
l: Would you like to describe what that was like?
BB: lt was a metal frame in the front room. lt took up about a third of the front room, and when the
sirens went off we slept in it. I remember it pervaded all the front room really. Another thing about
coming out * we sometimes went to Leytonstone tube station and there were shelving where
people slept on, like a wooden shelving. I remember taking bedding, coming out in the morning, cold
morning, after the night of spending it in the shelter of Leytonstone tube.
l: And you were there with your mother and brother?
BB: Yeah. That’s right. I’m not quite clear… I know mum wasn’t very happy in Lancashire. I think she
came back earlier than she should have done. John certainly said he stayed with his grandmother for
most of his early schooling.
l: So when were you reunited with him?
BB: I don’t honestly know. He was eight at the disaster. He was obviously here then. lt was a toing
and froing. lt was very difficult as well because even when we were in Lancashire, he was with one
grandmother and we were in another house. And to say, grandma Sharrock was very strict. The way
she was battling these forceful women in the care of her children. She wasn’t very happy. So I think
she came back as soon as she could.
l: And why didn’t she want to be there?
BB: Well, she was away from dad. She wasn’t in her own environment, she was basically going back
to her mother.
l: How old would she have been at that time?
BB: Dad was 38 when the disaster happened… she was a similar age. She was – she found it difficult
making friends here in London when she came down here. She used to say it wasn’t like Lancashire,
everybody knew everybody. She had great difficulty making friends. She was with policemen’s wives,
they formed a group. That helped her.
l: Digressing a little bit, l’m thinking of the photograph you showed us of your parents, their infant
school photograph. So did they know each other throughout their lives, or did they meet up again
many years later?
BB: No, dad left Bethnal Green. I think they got engaged, he was twenty-one. He left Bethnal Green
to get work. He went back to her and they got married, I don’t quite know how old, maybe twentythree.
He got back and they got married, and that evening, they came to London. They had a brief
honeymoon, but he brought her back to London, so everything was quite strange from the close-knit
community in Widnes to Bethnal Green, and then the war as well. So I think at times she was quite
emotionally depressed and upset and fearful obviously. I know on one occasion dad was in bed,
during the day it was another bomb fell on the hospital, near where we used to live in Leytonstone.
He woke up and the ceiling was on top of him. On the bed. London was very dangerous place really,
and cycling into Bethnal Green each day to go to work.
l: Do you have other memories of what London was like at that time? Even if you can’t remember
things you’ve heard from your mother about those war years?
BB: No, I can’t think of anything else. I remember V Day. We had invitation to two parties and I had
mumps or measles or something, so I missed out on the parties. But there was a great community
feeling of when the war was over. Sort of another part of my memory, but I can’t really remember….
l: You were very young!
BB: Yeah.
l: Do you remember being afraid at all? When you were in an Anderson shelter?
BB: The only thing I remember was, this separation must have affected me. This coming and going
and not knowing dad. That’s another memory of meeting him. I don’t know how long we’d been
apart, but he came up the garden path in his police uniform once, and I screamed. I didn’t know this
man. Perhaps six or something.
l: And then what was your relationship like after that?
BB: I was very close to dad. Yeah.
l: What was he like as a person, how would you describe him?
BB: Very reserved person. Kept his emotions very much to himself. Not really cut out to be a normal
policeman. He studied very hard to get on, and he didn’t get… he got to station sergeant at Bethnal
Green. But he left as soon as he could. He left the police in his forties. Took up other careers.
l; Oh. When you said he wasn’t cut out for it, what was it that you think he might have needed in
that role that just wasn’t his natural make-up?
BB: I don’t know how much aggression he had or authority he felt. He went into the police force
actually, he was with weights and measures. He followed his father’s footsteps and went into
weights and measures and did various exams. He used to study a lot.
l: What is that actually, weights and measures?
BB: Well, it was scales and balancing them. He used to go round repairing scales and making sure the
balances were right. One of these reasons for joining the police was they had two inspectors, the
weights and measures were under the police. Mum said that’s why he wanted to join the police to
follow his career in weights and measures. That didn’t happen because they split off from the police,
I don’t know when. This is what I’ve been told, I don’t know the ins and outs of all this.
I: Did he talk much about his career, the things he was doing day to day as a policeman?
BB: No, no. Little bits, He came home one day and said about chasing a man, he was on his bike and
the man was running and he nipped over an iron railing, my dad couldn’t follow, Little bits like that.
But that was the way he was anyway. He tended to keep things to himself.
l: And then in his forties he left the police force altogether.
BB: Yes, he went back to his weights and measures, I suppose it was engineering of some
description. He got jobs in schools, as an assistant to the technical people who used to set up
experiments in the classroom. Classroom assistant type of thing. He went back to that. He seemed
happier with that. I suppose that’s what reinforced my thoughts about him not being having the
police as his chosen career as you like, fitting in. He used to say they were, he studied, I remember
he had huge great books whlch he used to study, the Acts. He’d go in for an interview. He said they
had to stand to attention during the interviews, they didn’t sit down. He never progressed as he
wanted to. Yeah. So he’d done all this hard work. He was very much one for pushing yourself and
going to night school, That was part of his nature.
l: And did he instil that in you, do you think?
BB: Oh yes, when I left school, I left at sixteen and I went to night school.
l:What did you do at night school?
BB: I used to learn typing at that time.
l: I just want to come back to, you said that your mother told you a bit about the Bethnal Green tube
disaster. What your father had seen. ls there any more that you could say about what she told you?
BB: No. I can’t – I think I learned as children do over little snippets of information that they learn. I
just don’t think they talked about it. [Clip: significance of project/memorialj She would be absolutely
amazed to know that this is happening. She’d be really chuffed, especially having his name on the
memorial as well. The other ironic thing is she became a crossing patrol. The local police visited dad
to ask if he knew of anybody who would do the crossing patrol, which was actually outside our back
gate in Leytonstone. They sat and talked about, who could they suggest. And then mum said, what
about me? She did the crossing patrol about twenty-one years. And got the – was it the MBE? Yeahl
She got the MBE, long-service medal. That’s really odd. Dad had died by the time she actually got the
MBE, but they both got their medals,
l: What did he get a medal for?
BB: He got it for defence medal, and exemplary service, two medals. I’ve got them now. And my
brother’s got mum’s MBE. Yeah.
l: And how do you think you and your brother were affected? Could be in different ways for each of
you. lt’s not only the Bethnal Green disaster, it’s something much broader, the war…
BB: That’s right. l’ve often… I did actually have counselling for a while and she used to say that she
thought that my mother during my early years was depressed from the way I described her. That
shocked me, but lthinkthat’s right. Shedidn’tfeel supported with the neighbours. ln factthe
neighbour next door, she was quite harsh and mum used to be in the house on her own during the
bombing. I can’t remember my dad getting in the shelter and things like that. I presume he was
working. I certainly think that affected me.
l: She must have been very frightened herself, without support.
BB: Exactly. This separation business, I don’t think we formed as a whole family til the war ended. All
the comings and goings. I know one daywe were in Lancashire, my mum was in Lancashire, lthink I
was with her. ln Widnes there was a large chemical works here, they said it was a dangerous place.
So everybody left Widnes, Mum left for Blackpool for the day and then went back to Widnes. lt was
this uncertainty. I think that’s my main memories. lt must have affected me. My brother, I don’t
know how much it affected him. He seemed to be quite settled with my grandma. Probably he
related to her. l, being younger, seemed to be wherever mum went. We split.
l: ln the aftermath of the war, do you remember how the climate changed? You were still very little.
BB: There was still..” I always felt we were missing a lot of relatives. All of relatives in Lancashire,
every summer we used to spend our summer holidays in Lancashire, and we’d meet all these
relatives we really didn’t know. Cousins I played with but didn’t really know. And at Christmas, times
like that. lt always felt like I didn’t have the relatives around me that other children had. lt was a
great relief at the end of the war. I experienced that in a way, the parties and things.
l: When you would go to visit your cousins, did you enjoy that? Did you feel comfortable with them?
BB: Not always. Certain cousins you related to better, as you would anyway” But it was once every
year. We never really had a long-term relationship with them. My grandmas, I did, some of the older
relatives I felt more close to.
l: You mentioned these two strong womdn, your grandmothers. What were they like?
BB: Grandma Sharrock, she lived til she was about 90, in a home. She was very matria… she was very
powerful, She had four children my dad being the eldest. And the other one was more of a soft
grandma, a pliable grandma if you like. She would give in to us.
l: She was your mother’s mother.
BB; Yeah.
l: And your mother, from the little you’ve said l’ve sort of picked up she had a similar nature do you
say? Or is that not accurate?
BB: Yes, as a family it’s very strange when you think about what happened. She related to my
brother more, and I related to dad. ln a way we had this split still, a bit. Even as we grew older.
l: Your mother related to your brother more. You were closer to your father.
BB: Yes, quite split. Still, in a way.
l: So you didn’t feel particularly close to her, even though you were with her?
BB: I did at the end. When I was married, I was divorced. She rallied round and was extremely close
and helpful to me. She wasn’t emotionally. She couldn’t see the emotional part of it much. She did
practical things for me, looking after the children, she’d mow the lawn when I was working and
things. So yeah. I did get closer to her. And when she was ill, she came here, with John and l, she
came here when she was ill. She didn’t go to my brother, she stayed with us.
l; And you took care of her?
BB: Well, not long, But when she was ill, she would come.
l: Would you like to then talk about how you got married, the kind of work you did, the children you
had? You haven’t talked about that at all.
BB; Well, I married at twenty-one.
l: Where was that?
BB: We were in Leytonstone. Alec was my husband. He worked at the college in Loughton. We had
two children, Pam in 1964 and Paul in 65. When they were five and seven, we split up, which was
quite traumatic as you’d imagine. He went to live with one of the people in the college. I met John
and we began living together ten years later after that. So my children experienced this split as well.
l: ln these intervening ten years were you alone with your children?
BB: Yeah.
l: What was that like for you, bringing them up?
BB: Very difficult. l’d met John early, and we parted. lt’s quite tangled. I was just going to explain that
I went into social work. So both of us ended up in social work, retired when I was sixty. That’s a life
story. {laughs)
l: ls there anything more you would like to speak about, the Bethnal Green Tube disaster or its
impact or the war? Before Caroline will come and ask you particularly about the Memorial Trust?
Memories of your father?
BB: I suppose the only thing I think of, I’ve got the leaflet for the Trust as well. The children now, our
grandchildren, they’ve got no idea, no perception of what it was like.
l: Do you speak to them?
BB: l’m going to meet my brother and some of his children. l’ve got some of the leaflets to give to
them. They must know in the back of their mind about it, but life today has moved on, which is good.
Things that happened during the war… very history.
l: What do you feel is important for them to know? What would you like them to know about how it
was?
BB: Well, I suppose, you see it now in the films. How these young men, cause dad was young as well,
how their lives were affected, many of them died as well… How their lives were so affected by the
waf .
l: You explained a little bit about how you became involved with the Stairway to Heaven Trust. Do
you have anything to add to that?
BB: [Clip: SHMT involvement] We haven’t involved ourselves in much of the fundraising, but we
attend the service, we’ve tried to attend the service every year. As you know we came across the
people collecting, first of all my son at the tube station at Bethnal Green and then we later met up
with him at Paddington. So it’s mainly through them that we’ve got involved. I get the newsletter
every so often. But we haven’t been helping otherwise.
l: [Clip: significance of projectlmemorial] How did you feel when you found out that this was
happening?
BB: I was overjoyed. Especially at the beginning, I just thought we were – we saw pictures of it and
heard bits about it. Then when Sandra said that it might be that we have a plaque for the emergency
services, that delighted people. Then when she actually said that they would put my dad’s name on
the plaque, Richard Sharrock. So yeah, I was overjoyed.
l: How do you feel about the memorial itself? What do you think about the design?
BB: I don’t know about the stairway to be honest. (laughs) What they’ve got at the moment, I’m
pleased with. lt’s better than I thought from the pictures. Hopefully the stairs will fit in as well, but I
can’t envisage it, it seems top-heavy, I don’t know. Just unusual. But I’ve learned they’re gonna have
lights in there beaming down, so perhaps the perception is not the reality of what it will be.
l: [Clip: significance of project/memorial] Why do you think it’s important to have a memorial in the
area for the local community?
BB: Well, I mean, if it raises the idea that what war was like… the people coming, it was a very busy
spot. The situation of the memorial is so close to the disaster. Yeah. lt’s important that when you go
to the service and they read out all the names of the women and children. The fathers came home
from work to find just whole families had died, it’s terrible.
l: Do you know any information about how many of the emergency services were involved that night
and how long it took?
BB: [Clip: significance of project/memorial] On the plaque that dad’s got it talks about home guard
and thinkthere was a fireman and doctors. And then there’s another plaque that’s the actual
experience of a doctor isn’t there^ lt’s only through the plaque that I really know. I suppose I’m
amazed that no relatives of the other policemen have come forward. lt’s a shame because I’d like to
meet them. There must have been huge amount of police involved as well.
l: Do you have anything else to add about the memorial? Stairway to Heaven work?
BB: No…
l: [Clip: significance of projectlmemorial] Can you say a little bit about how you think it’s important
for younger generations…
BB: lt was only through your leaflet I realised that they were doing an outreach, for schools and kits
for schools and things like that. We did go to our local Waitrose and put an application in to see if
they wanted to collect some money. They do collect some money. They said they might. Near
Armistice Day.
l: You were saying earlier about your impression of the architect. What you said about him and what
he’s achieved in doing the memorial?
BB; [Clip: SHMT founding] The way he came across? My understanding is that when we met him at
the open day… he lives locally in Bethnal Green and he used to wonder what the plaque was. He
made inquiries and it was actually him who set everything off. Following his inquiries they held a
meeting. This was all before I knew anything about it. They held a meeting in the local hall, and
Sandra was saying that 300 people turned up. That was just from one input to gather people
together. I suppose not living in Bethnal Green… there’s more adverts, they collect money around
there. We haven’t been involved so much or seen so much.
l: Do you think that the nature of Bethnal Green being what it is today is very different from what it
was during the war?
BB: Actually yes, that’s the bit I didn’t say. Dad used to take me to the police station in Bethnal
Green. On one occasion he put me on a horse. One of the big police horses there. I mean, that was
just a one-off memory, I don’t know how often he took me there. But I knew that was where he
worked. The station there.
l: Do you think that’s important to have it in the area, even though it’s a very different type of area
today?
BB: Yeah, it’s amazing isn’t it that 300 people came forward. Connected with the disaster, in one
meeting. That was the beginning, now it’s grown.
l: Thank you,

Eric Linden
Fifteen-year-old Eric was out looking for his air-raid warden father who had
not returned home from the cinema as expected. At Bethnal Green station
Eric realised something dreadful had happened. Knowing many people had
died, he wrote a story which he phoned through to the Daily Mail. He had no idea his father was one of those who met their death on the steps of the
underground.

hdernorial Fncject
klemorial Project
Bethnal€reen Memorial Project: Oral History Summary
Catalogue Number: lnterviewee/s:
Eric Linden
lnterviewer/s:
Amy Murphy, Philip Sunshine
Date of lnterview:
1″0 December 2013
Location:
Brentwood
Length of interview:
72 minutes
Any other info;
Time:
0:00
8:00
11:30
1,4:45
22:15
26:00
29:00
30:00
39:00
Summary:
lntroductions. Eric was born in Finsbury Park, but moved to Bethnal Green as a young
child. He recalls his childhood there, particularly navigating the local gang culture,
including the ‘blackshirts’ led by Mosley.
Eric speaks about the beginning of the war, when he and his siblings were evacuated
and spent several years in the countryside in Somerset.
Eric moves back to London when he was fifteen years old.
On the night of the tube disaster, Eric’s father, who was an air raid warden, went to the
cinema near Bethnal Green station. When he failed to return home, Eric searched for
him at the cinema and came across the Bethnal Green disaster on his way home, not
knowing his father was actually inside the crush.
Eric wrote up an account of the events and sent it to his employer, the Daily Mail, in an
attempt to get it published. The paper followed up on the incident, but was unable to
publish the account due to a government injunction.
A heavily edited version of the story was covered by London media, and Eric’s account
wasn’t confirmed until the 1960s.
Shortly after, Eric joined the Air Force. His memories of this time are unhappy.
After that, he became a sports reporter, specialising in speedway and ice hockey
reporting. He speaks about a boxing bout he remembers covering, and about his
passion for speedway, He became assistant editor, then editor, of a monthly speedway
magazine.
When speedway lost the public’s interest and Eric was no longer able to support his
family that way, he found a job with a different paper called TV Times, reporting on
current programmes on lTV. He speaks at length about climbing the career ladder with
the fV Times, and establishing a new system for information gathering among the
49:20 | various independent companies that contributed to lTV.
59:00 | Back to the Bethnal Green tube disaster: Eric speaks about how the causes and the true
course of events were whitewashed. As he pieced together afterwards, there had been
attempts to make the station safer, but without success.
63:00 | Eric speaks about the memorial that is being built, and regrets that it is too late for
most survivors to see it.
70:00 | He discusses the rumours blaming the Jews for causing the disaster.
Closing words
Memorlal Prnject
Bethnal Green Memorial Praject lnterview Transcript
lnterviewee {EL): Eric Linden
lnterviewer (12):
Date: 10 December 2013
Location; Brentwood
l: Just for the recording, this is the 10 December 2013, we’re in Brentwood, Essex, and this is Amy
Murphy and Philip Sunshine interviewing Eric Linden for the Bethnal Green Memorial Project. Eric,
thanks very much for agreeing to talk to somebody, I really appreciate it. I’d like to just start I
suppose by getting a sense of your upbringing in the East End. When were you born?
EL:1926.
l: 1926. And were you born in the East End?
EL: No, I was born in Finsbury Park. We moved to the East End when I was four or five.
l: And what are your memories of that time, the 30s in the East End?
EL: When you say memories… I got memories of Green Street as it used to be, with all the stores
down each side of the road and the buse$ never able to get through, Mostly I’m afraid a lot of the
memories were of trying to stay out of the reach of the Mosley thugs. lt was quite a happy place.
What can I tellyou about my childhood memories?
l: You mentioned the Mosley thugs as you call it. Do you think that’s a very strong part of that life in
the East End at that time?
EL: Yes, it was at that time. But particularly where we were because my parents had two gown shops
in Roman Road, what’s now Roman Road, then Green Street, and Mosley’s headquarters or the
headquarters of the Bethnal Green branch of the blackshirts was probably L50 yards away. So we
were forever in the public eye, so to speak.
l: And then I suppose with 1″939, the approach of war, you’d have been then still a young boy.
EL: ln 39, I was twelve.
l: What schools did you go to?
EL: Coopers. lt was the Coopers Company School. lt was equivalent to a public school in as much as
the headmaster was a member of the headmasters’ conference or something, which gave the school
that added kudos. A very very good school, it was all male. lt was… lt was about 15 minute walk for
me, it was not far away, near enough to get home for dinner.
l: That was the important part then.
EL: Well, lunch it now is, dinner as it was then.
l: You mentioned the gown shops. Did you ever help out in the shops yourself?
EL: No.
l: So what were your kind of interests when you were a boy?
EL: Member of the local gang including all the local blackshirts, who accepted me into the gang, but
if it came to a social occasion I was in trouble.
l; Really?
EL; Oh yes. There was a distinct difference between being in the gang so to speak, and then being no
longer gang time therefore you’re no longer a friend.
l: Wow, so really a case of… I guess like,.. what would you call it?
EL: We used to call it ducking out of the way.
l: This idea that it’s alright one minute, but the next minute it’s just blanked on the street.
EL: They were thoroughly influenced by their parents as to their connections outside of boyhood
friendship.
l: What impact did this have when the war broke out?
EL: Um, don’t know if it had any impact. They tried to carry on but of course most of the Mosley
hierarchy were probably shoved into… not concentration camps… into jail, which no leaders tended
to break up the… the feeling was still there. lt was fifty per cent anti-Semitic.
l: That must have been a really tense atmosphere. I’m trying to imagine it…
EL: lt got pretty tense. lt tended to get a bit physical at times and became particularly tense on those
days when the communists decided they were gonna march, and of course they had to march
through Green Street. They were always little incidents going on.
I ; Physical confrontation…
EL: Physical and what’s the word… can’t think of the word. lncidents where somebody would tend to
throw a milk bottle through the glass windows, lots of those, god knows how many times. Or some
of the communists would stage a night raid and go down and pour petrol over the door of the fascist
headquarters and set light to it. Those things were going on all the time. I must say the majority of
them passed you by. You just knew it was happening, you knew that any minute something could
happen to you.
l: Sounds like very much a case of people living their normal lives, but always with this awareness
and one eye on what could be.
EL: Yeah. Let me say, it was not an unhappy place.
l: What was the spirit of the time, if you could sum up that feeling, that mood?
EL: Spirit of the time was just, bugger everybody, we’re alright. {both laugh) You just got on with it.
l: A kind of can do or make do. When war broke out you were about twelve, thirteen I guess. Did you
stay in London for the duration of the war?
EL: Ma decided that none of us, that’s myself, my brother and my sister, were not gonna stay in
London. We knew only too well what had happened in the European countries, and what to expect.
They shuffled us all out, we all got evacuated.
l: Where did you go?
EL: Started off at a lovely village called Aldbourne, mostly because we were supposed to go
somewhere else, but the train didn’t go there.
{5hort interlude, changing batteries for Eric’s hearing aids)
l: I’m back recording again after a short hearing aids intermission.
EL: Aldbourne, spelled A-l-d-b-o-u*r-n-e. We were billeted on… I suppose it was a farm except that
he was ill, he just had a few animals but he was sick at the time and his daughter was running the
place. lt was on the village green. His house cottage was on one corner, facing it was the fire station
and there were two other buildings, one on each corner, and that basically was the village.
lnteresting thing was he had two animals, a very friendly big Alsatian and a pet sheep. Pet lamb it
wasn wasn’t a sheep. We only stayed there about three weeks, when we were told we were now
going to be moved to our permanent place at Taunton in Somerset. And off we went to Taunton,
and we finished up at Frome. Why we didn’t go to Taunton nobody ever found out, they just billeted
us at Frome and that was it. I must say the people there were very good to take us in.
l: The three of you were together, you and your brother and sister?
EL: My mum and brother were together, at the last minute my mother decided to keep my sister
who was quite tiny at home with her.
l: How much space is there between you, your sister and your brother?
EL: About five years between each of us. So that was it, that was there. Frome. Til I’d finished my
exams, that was when I was about 15, came back to London and got various jobs.
l: lt must have been quite a change of pace moving from the East End of London out to Frome.
EL; lt was, it was. But it’s amazing how quickly you got used to it. Never missed the East End even
when we were away.
l: What was the feeling of coming back to the East End? Were you looking forward to coming back to
London?
EL: A littte bit weary because although by then most of the raids had stopped, we knew there was
still gonna be knocking around. But once you got back, you never worried about it. I got a job first at
the British Drug Houses because I was guite good at chemistry but decided I really wanted to be a
reporter.
l: Why was that? Just something you’d always been interested in?
EL: Later I found out that my mother’s father had apparently been a journalist back in Russia before
the pogroms and they couldn’t get out, so maybe it was just in the blood, I don’t know. One day I
decided that’s what l’d like to do, I’d like to write. Got a job at the Daily Mail, not as a reporter but
just in what they called the tape room. You were a go-for, you took the tapes from the machine to
whichever one of the reporters. And that was how it was until this thing came along.
l: What age were you then? You came back to London 1942?
EL: Fifteen, sixteen. 4!,421 think.
l: After the Blitz then?
EL: Oh, the Blitz was over, At that stage we were in the end of the buzz bomb era. I was in uniform
when the buzz bombs came over so maybe itwasn’t… Anyway lcame back, got into the Mail, my
father was an air raid warden. I’m never quite sure exactly what his job was in except that he was in
there, except that he was in it.
l; Had your father fought in the First World War?
EL: No. I don’t think he was old enough. He certainly wasn’t in it. And that was life, you just went
along. The night of this thing, my father had gone out to the cinema, not in Green Street but the
crossroads and across there was an old cinema there called Smarts, which was anything but smart.
He went there because..” I don’t think it was the film, but because it was within a few yards of where
his mother and father had a shop, which meant they could go to the cinema, come out of the
cinema, pop in and see ’em, come home. Which would be his norm. On this occasion he went to the
cinema and didn’t come home. After a while, I started to get a bit worried. Particularly when the
warning had gone off, Maybe he’s gone to my grandmother. Maybe he’s gone somewhere else. But
if the warning’s gone he’s probably gone back to the post, wherever the post was.
So I walked down to… almost out to the tube station, which was about quarter, half a mile away.
From there it would have been another quarter mile to the cinema. I was gonna go in and see if he’d
stayed in the cinema which was unlike him, people tended to come out, a few did stay, they kept the
show running for the few that stayed. Most people on a warning would come out and head for the
shelters. He wasn’t in the cinema. I had a good look around.
I didn’t want to worry my grandmother. I was fairly sure if a warning has gone he’s gone back. I came
back, and when I got back I could see something was going on. I started poking around and nosing
around and found out what was going on. Had no idea my father was down there, didn’t think he
would be down there. Later tried to work out how he’d gotten down there. I assume what had
happened – he came out of the cinema and the buses had a habit, if there was a raid on they would
stop and pick people up all the way along the line. He must have gotten the bus back to the tube,
intended to go to his post, got caught up seeing something was going on, either went to help or just
got caught up in it. Obviously remains a mystery what happened,
I can remember very much being told to go away rather rudely. And I thought if they want me to go
awaythere’s gotta be a reason, so lstayed. Fortunatelythe guythat lspoke to… lsaid I was looking
for my father. He said if he’s down there, forget it. That’s when I realised something was going on
and then pieced it all out. Went and found out what had happened, no idea how many were there
except there was a lot. lf they could pull them out from the top of the stairs, but the station was at
that point terribly badly designed. They had a flight of stairs going down and then there was a brick
wall. You had to turn and go down to the level where the booking office was. Of course, what had
happened was somebody down past the first part had slipped. We don’t know if she slipped or if she
dropped a baby or whether she had her bag snatched. There were strong rumours that there was a
bag snatching BanE, and names were given as well as to who it was, run by a fairly prominent
sportsman. That’s all l’m gonna say, lwon’t name him even now. That was never proved. lt was one
of the rumours. But what wasn’t a rumour was what set it off, was that people were going down the
tube. There was one light I think, and I think it was a 25W lamp. To serve the whole of this stair…
down and down and down. lt was wet because it had been raining. I think it had stopped at that
stage. But the stairs were wet and therefore greasy. There was no centre – what do you call it…
l: A hand rail?
EL: A long pole all the way down the middle. Nothing like that. Opening was… if you look at that
fireplace, it wasn’t much wider than that from what I remember.
l: That would be what is that 5ft even?
EL: I don’t know, that was it. You’ve got people not walking down one at a time which would be no
problem, but jamming into it. Most times you get away with it. Might tear your clothes or something
but you’d get away with it. Not this time. Anyway, I wrote up the story, I rang it into the Daily Mail,
and they couldn’t print it, government stopped them. They put a ban on it. The Mail did send down a
reporter and a photographer, so they got some shots. But nothing that decried what the
government was saying, which was that it was the result of an air raid. At one stage they said it was
a result of bombs being dropped. There were no bombs dropped. There was no aircraft, there were
no searchlights, nothing, This is after the warning had gone. I didn’t go out, I looked out the
windows, nothing going on. Yet they insisted that this was the reason. They would not tolerate
anyone suggesting it was a panic. Because the reasoning was fair enough, that if people were known
to have panicked because of bombs, they weren’t gonna use tubes anymore, and there’d been
enough trouble to be allowed to use the tubes in the first place. This was the one reason that they
wouldn’t use the tubes anymore for fear of being hit by a bomb etc. So they killed the story and they
insisted there had been an air raid and they insisted that a bomb had been dropped.
l: When you say they, who insisted?
EL: The government, Ministry of Propaganda. God knows who, somebody put a veto straight down,
and kept it down. What we actually heard, which was one of the reasons why I started running up
there, was this terrible noise. I wasn’t used to shellfire, but all the people in the East End, they knew
what shellfire was. What the anti-aircraft guns sound like. They knew what the bombs sounded like.
And no way would they believe that this thing that had gone up, it was a noise that, you can’t
describe it. lt was extremely loud, it was like a whoosh. A venomous whoosh. And it had gone up.
We had never heard this. l’d never heard it certainly. None of the peopfe that had lived through the
Blitz had heard anything like this, which is what induced the panic. And panic it certainly was. No
way would they release any parts of the story. lt made front pages of course, but a heavily milked
version made front pages.
l: That’s something I wanted to ask you about, I guess what I want to do is also give Philip a chance
to ask you some questions, cause I know Philip has some questions, so I’m going to pause the tape
for a second.
(brief pause)
12: Your memories of what was being reported at the time?
EL: I can’t remember what they wrote. All I do know is they’d sent down a reporter, a photographer
and their star writer, Prince White I think his name was, something Prince White. To write up the
story. And as far as I can see all he can have written is a cover story. This is Bethnal Green, a lot of
people were killed, there was an air raid and all the rest of it. My story as I said never saw the light of
day, although I was given a credit, on page three there was a little box: This boy brought the news.
And I thought marvellous, except they spelled my name wrong. I work for this lot and they can’t
even spell my name. That was the acknowledgement that I had scooped the story, and it was a
scoop because as far as I know none of the other reporters were there at the same time as the Daily
Mail people were. Although obviously they all followed it, and they just as much followed the line
laid down. I think it took until the early 60s, 1″960, when they finally admitted that there had been no
raid etc, and that basically my story was right.
12: Was that in print though?
EL: No, this was the government then answering questions and they answered them like that, where
they came clean they had done a cover-up.
12: And the original piece was a front page?
EL: The original one? Yes, a front-page story. I thought it was good considering I was only in the tape
room.
l2: Did that help you in any way later on in your career?
EL: No way. Not at all. I wasn’t there that much longer before I went in the Air Force.
12: Tell us about your time in the Air Force.
EL: I didn’t like it, there were too many people trying to kill you.
l2; You always hear that when you’re there you meet friends that you form a close relationship…
EL: You don’t form too many friends. Mostly because they ain’t gonna be there for breakfast. That’s
not a time that I liked. lt has nothing to do with Bethnal Green anyway.
12: And after you left the Air Force?
EL: Great ambitions, I still wanted to write, I formed a publishing company which had a couple of
successes but more losses. Eventually closed down. And I just got on to magazines after that, mostly
on sports stuff. I was doing quite a lot of freelance work for the Daily Mirror on sporting things.
Mostly speedway and ice hockey. Bit of football. Every so often they decided I was a boxing expert
and sent me to cover that. Which was hell, cause I vvasn’t a boxing expert any more than my big
mate Harry Carpenter was a boxing expert until he started at the BBC. They sent me to lovely places
lil<e the York Hall in Bethnal Green. Hoxton bars. Rampant with bookies and betters who were irate
at every decision the referees made. Who would then descend on me with little words like, what do
you think, you’re press ain’t you? I didn’t know a left hook from a kick in the arse.
12: So where were you positioned? ln the front row where the ring was? Did you get good seats?
EL: Yeah, right in the front. That was very rare, it was only if one of their regulars had kind of
vanished at the last minute.
12: Can you remember an interesting bout that you saw?
EL: I can remember one bout now. Turpin. Randolph Turpin in his early days, he was fighting some
poor old bugger, Tug somebody, who must have been about… getting onto 50. He built this guy
terrible. After I went around to the dressing room, don’t ask me why but I did. And he came out
smart, bow tie and everything. This other fellow came siaggering out and he looked such a mess.
Whoever had put him in there, God knows why. Must have been part of the build up of Randolph
Turpin to where he got up tot he top. That’s the only boxing one I remember.
l2: What was your favourite sport to cover?
EL: Mostly speedway and I liked ice hockey.
l2: What were the venues then for speedway?
EL: All over the place, London had five tracks,.. no, six tracks. That was every night of the week.
Wimbledon, West Ham , New Cross, Wembley, Haringey, Walthamstow. Walthamstow didn’t last
very long. That was just the London stretch, and then they had more around the country. Bradford,
Bellview, Manchester, Glasgow. Can’t remember them all now. Swindon, Plymouth. Speedway was
quite big in those days after the war. Very big. What else can I tell you?
l2: Carry on, what happened after your reporting?
EL: I got a job on a magazine which was a speedway monthly. Got that very cheekily cause I’d been
working for a local printer who was running a weekly paper, one of those papers that was eight
pages full of photos, lots of articles, cost next to nothing, paid next to nothing as well. The guy who
was the actual editor of it, he was the brother of a fellow called Colin V., and Colin V. was the boy of
Fleet Street. His brother Bruce that I was with was a take-it-easy merchant. Totally opposite to each
other, but he had loads of good ideas. Wembley was one of the great tracks. And they had got the
transfer of a star American, Wilbur Lamoreaux, name I’ll never forget. Wilbur Lamoreaux was
promptly bought up as a columnist by another, a big speedway newspaper. Star columnist exclusive.
And Bruce told me, get an interview with him and write it first person. And I was a bit dumb, I
thought hang on a minute, he’s been bought by this other lot, they got him exclusive. How can I
write for Wilbur Lamoreaux. Just write it by Wilbur Lamoreaux in an interview. I said alright, and I
did all that.
And I promptly got a call from the owner of the paper who had bought Mr Lamoreaux, it wasn’t an
invite, it was an instruction to get out there and see him. So I went out and saw him. He gave me
hell, of what I thought I was doing, stealing his man, this was exclusive. I could take you to court,
God knows. He says but on the other hand it was pretty smart.., cause he attributed it to me, not to
the guy. That was pretty smart. Would you like a job? And that’s how I became the assistant editor
of the Speedway Monthly. The editor then got himself in disgrace with a libel case. And was given
the option of leaving or going to court. The option being from the people he had libelled. He not
surprisingly decided he’d leave. That left a hole at the top. They said you’re the assistant editor. I’d
only been the assistant editor for a couple of weeks. You’re now the editor. Went there for a while.
The accountant for the firm then decided he was going to set up his own paper, and would I like to
go as editor with him? That was great until about 1955 I think it was, when speedway had suffered a
depression. Speedway interest goes in cycles, and the cycle had reached the bottom.
My job with the paper that I was working for was that they’re gonna cut the money in half, which
left me with nine pound a week and a wife and two children and a house to support. I knew I
couldn’t make it on nine pound a week, and for the only time in my life I went out and bought the
trade newspaper. The World Press News at it then was, I don’t know what they call it now. And the
front page story was that lTV, which had got the license for commercial television, were going to
produce a paper, TV Times. And they appointed one Lester Wilson, deputy editor of the Sunday
Dispatch, to become the editor. And I knew that just trying to get a job there would be hopeless,
cause if it was a Sunday Dispatch paper they were going to fill it with Sunday Dispatch people. I
thought, I have to do something else. I went home that night and I worked right the way through the
night and I do not joke, and I produced thirty different ideas of various things to do with television,
particularly to do with independent television. Ran them round to the office of the fV Times,left
them with the secretary there who was the only one,.. left them for the editor. I thought, well, l’ll
never hear any more of that. Decided the best thing was to go home and to go to sleep. Went to
sleep.
When I woke up my wife told me, you had a phone call from a woman. I haven’t had anything.. I
can’t think of any… who was it? She said, her name was Valerie something. She was the editor’s
secretary. I said, God, I know who it was. lt was the woman l’d given the letters to. What was the
message? She said, well Mr Wilson wanted to see you. Why didn’t you wake me? That’s the end of it,
he sent round for me and I haven’t turned up. Next morning while having breakfast the phone went.
And it was Valerie, she said you might have not got the message, she repeated it. I went up there
and they gave me a job. And now thanks to the earlier training, I could do pretty well any job on the
paper. Had nothing to do with the printing or the type setting but I could do all the others. Whereas
all the others they had taken on from the Sunday Dispatch were specialists, so they could only do
that one job. So they gave me a job as editorial assistant. That meant I was everybody’s go-for after
a week, the huge office about four times, five times the size of this.
Down one end of it, there were glass panes, the editor’s office behind it so he could just stand up
and see what was going on. He had obviously been standing up and looked at what was going on.
Called me in after a week and said, you alright? Yeah. You seem to be on call all over the place! I
said, yeah. Tiring? Yeah. Well, what would you like to be? I said I’d like to write, He said right. lt went
from there, I got up to editorial executive… can’t remember the title. But it was in fact basically in
charge of all the subs and artists, and that was about a hundred, then photographers and feature
writers.
And then I had to set up a system gathering information from the companies. You’d think that as fy
Iirnes was a company belonging to all the independent television companies, they would feed it with
information. No” They were too aware that the BBC also had information gatherers, so they weren’t
going to give anything away about what their programmes were. Have the BBC coming up against
them. So we weren’t getting any information. Time without number we went to press on a guess on
what they were gonna do. And thanks to a spy system you’d set up, you were usually fairly accurate.
Forever chasing bits of information which should have been sent in. I had a reckoning with the
editor, He said, you can do it better? Set up a system. I set up the system and going to each of the
heads of the various companies of lTV, laying down to them, this is how we want it. With a system
built in for warnings when they’re late or haven’t arrived and warnings for changes of programmes
etc. lt got to be quite a thing. Now there were thirteen television companies, no way was it possible
to go to each one every week. So I decided I would do the top four, the deputies do the remaining
ones, and it worked.
12: What were the top four?
EL: Thames, ATV, ABC as it then was, and Granada. Later Granada split into Granada and Yorkshire.
So that became a top five then. But our life then was trying to control the goings-on inside TV Times
with the subs and all the rest of them. And trying once week to visit each of the companies. Once a
week became impossible. So we went to once a month in the end, but they were all really good. lt
was a contact at managerial level, it was the managing directors each case. And sometimes the
programme controllers. So I was getting good stuff. lt not only had to be what was going on, the
week by week stuff eventually took care of itself. But I needed to know what they had planned for
the future so that we could start lining up feature. And if they dropped things in which they
obviously did every so often, we had features ready. I enjoyed that, enjoyed writing more. But the
writing went out the window I’m afraid.
l2: Sort of pioneering.
EL: lt was pioneering in those days. lt’s kind of welded it into a shape. That was it.
12: That’s a sort of legacy that you’ve left that’s been carried on.
EL: lt was a legacy at the time, I don’t know if it still is. Never caught up with any of my… only one of
my Air Force guys, the rest of them l’m afraid never made it through. Never saw much of them.
Never really wanted to, to be honest.
12: Come back to the aftermath of the disaster, did you know of any other victims?
EL: No. I heard of other victims, there was one name that kept coming up, Alf Morris, who I believe
was one of the first people pulled out. I think he’s still around. But no, never saw…
12: And with the inquiry, was your family involved or asked to be involved in the inquiry?
EL: lf they were I never heard of it. When was the inquiry?
l: There was… the inquiry was immediately after, the following weeks and months, which was
conducted by the Mr Herbert Morrison.
EL; Oh, him. {both laugh} Who I had worked out was probably the main cause of the bloody
blackout. No. Was it immediately afterwards?
l: lt was in the following weeks and months, l’m terrible with dates.
EL: lf it was in the following weeks and months it wasn’t an inquiry, it was a whitewash.
l; Could you say a bit more about that?
EL: I didn’t know anything about it.
l: You definitely think that Morrison is the man at the top of it?
EL: I think he was probably… whether he made the initial decision I don’t know. Somebody made the
decision to whitewash completely the unit in Victoria Park, which was quite close, which set off the
rockets. Somebody told them to, they didn’t do it off their own bat. That name I don’t think was ever
revealed, who gave the order to fire the rockets. And when. Would have been immediate. As soon as
they said go, they went. But somebody gave an order. lt might not have been an official order. And
we knew, or we found out afterwards, that they had been testing these rockets or were due to test
them, and we figured this is what it was. They had tested them. Why they did it, why nobody told
somebody in their local authorities: watch out for this, give a surreptitious warning or something…
cause the people known there was a new – something new was gonna happen, they may not have
panicked as they did. But this was an unknown…
l: Do you believe that air raid siren itself was part of that testing? Or do you think that there was
supposed to be a raid that night?
EL: I came to the conclusion it was part of the test. That’s only my conclusion. There may well have
been some kind of alert. But planes around, nothing. lf there’d been planes around there would have
been at least one searchlight poking around in the sky but I don’t remember seeing anything.
l2: Was it a clear night?
EL: lt had been raining and it couldn’t have been clear. lt must have been dark. When you say clear…
I thlnk it had stopped raining.
12: You could see stars?
EL: I don’t remember looking up and seeing stars. lt hadn’t stopped raining all that long if it had
stopped. lt may have still been spitting, I can’t remember. All I know is the ground was wet.
l; Other people have said that too.
EL: Well, this is one thing that undoubtedly helped the accident, Someone’s gonna have a foot slide.
l: And there had been requests mentioned for safety features…
EL: I gathered after from what I’d heard that there had been criticisms, both of the stairway and of
the light.
12: When did you find out officially that your father was one of the victims of the disaster?
EL: lt was probably a couple of days later. And I think the first people to find out were the ARP
people cause it was one of their own, They passed it I assume my mother, who promptly got in
touch with a couple of uncles or something and they went down and identified the body. They
wouldn’t let me go down. Saying, remember him as he was. Certainly within a day or two.
l; And at that point I think it took several days for people to find out… were you by that point aware
he was involved but it hadn’t been made official to you? Or were you still not sure where he might
be? By the time you found out his body was there, had you already known, or were you still… maybe
he was somewhere else?
EL: We were trying to work out where on earth he could have been.
l: So all that time you were covering the story, you had no idea.
EL: No, when I was covering the story I had no idea cause that was just an hour or two. As far as I
was concerned he was probably at home. I was caught up with the story at that point.
l: And what do you remember about the response on the scene? Do you remember policemen,
ambulance?
EL: Don’t remember ambulances, do remember some people picking up bodies and putting them on
buses to drive them away. Policemen I can’t remember. lt was just… I remember some soldiers were
around. Everybody was just trying to help the best way they could. I don’t even remember if a crowd
had gathered or not to be honest. I imagine there must have been people.
l:The public were helping out as well?
EL; I think they were. As much as they could. You can’t get many people through an opening like
10
that, even to go and help.
l: And so at that point the rescue effort was severely hampered by the…? [‘m just wondering, people
have talked about the difficulty of trying to remove people.
EL: The difficulty was you couldn’t get in.
l: ln or out…
EL. No! There were a few people who managed to get in, and they were pulling people out. There
was no question of getting people out from the bottom. There were people in the station who were
pulling them from the bottom as well. Which I imagine was happening, but from the top Vou
couldn’t get in. Maybe one or two people who got in, who just pulled on legs or arms or anything.
Not a nice night.
l: What do you think of the… we’ve talked briefly about the memorial, I know you haven’t seen much
of it yourself. But what do you think of the idea of having a big memorial at the station?
EL: Having a memorial is great. Why it’s taken this long, I don’t know. Other than there were a few
few, adherents.,. who kept at it, who deserve a great deal of praise for the work they did. And I must
admit that when I was told there was going to be a memorial, I thought, why now? Memorial is just,
I don’t know, it’s just names on a piece of stone but it’s not right cause it’s far more than that to the
people concerned.
l: ls there any way to remember those people that you think would better, would be more
a ppropriate?
EL: Unfortunately these people are dead and gone. Most of their survivors are dead and gone as well
I imagine,
l: Were your family ever compensated?
EL: I did hear of one woman who had actually sued them. I can’t think of who she sued now. Anne
something, and won a thousand pounds or something, but I can’t think of what she sued them for
and what they paid her for.
l; Thousand pounds would have been a lot of money in those days.
EL: I don’t know when it was. Certainly there was one successful suing, apart from that I don’t know.
There probably have been others as well.
l: This was part of the inquiry or whitewash as you call it, there was this inquiry to find out, should
people be compensated as this being war casualties?
EL: Yes well, they should have done. Negligence of the conditions of the station and the conditions of
the firing of the rockets. The more I think about it… Stupid they’ve got this weapon they’re gonna
use anyway and for some unknown reason they think the Germans don’t know about it. But what’s
more, neither are the people who it’s gonna effect gonna be told about it. You need a warning.
l: There was just one more thing lwanted to askyou about, we’ve read some documents, Ithink
Philip has seen some of them…
ishort break)
1,r
12: We’re coming towards the end. Did you ever hear any stories about, it was the Jewish people that
were panicking?
EL: Yeah, that was the local blackshirts who said it was the Jews. lt was one of the many stories that
came out like I told you about the bag snatching myth. I never actually, I don’t remember how the
Jews were at fault, but I do remember the stories spread around. And there was another lot as well
that got blasted, I can’t remember who they were.
l2: Another group that panicked.
EL: There was another group,.. this was all kind of rumour and not based on any knowledge that I
could understand.
l2: Just to blame…
EL: People came up with theories. The blackshirt theory was obvious, the rest… everybody had an
idea of what had happened I suppose.
12: You’ve talked about your father in the role of the air raid. Would you like to talk about your
father, what you remember of him? What type of person he was and how good he was as a father to
you?
EL: Very quiet person. Complete opposite of belligerent. Very respectful of his parents. Which I must
say most of us weren’t. lt took a long way before you got round to realising just exactly what they
did. He was a very quiet man. Very hard working. He had been… when he met my mother he was a
tailor as far as I know. Then decided to try their luck at retail shopping, which was the ladies’
costumes and frocks. They were frocks in those days, weren’t they. We used to call them that. They
owned one shop in a pickle shop. When I was a kid, when we lived in Finsbury Park, they took me
down to see this shop that they were gonna buy. And I can only remember going into this shop and
seeing rows and rows of pickle jars. I take it it must have been some kind of a grocer or fish shop…
l2: Delicatessen?
EL: I don’t think they were delicatessen. Nothing was dainty, not in Roman Road. On Green Street.
But whatever it was, I was asked by visiting relatives what kind of shop it is, and I said” a pickle shop.
But whatever it was, they turned it into a gown shop. Then had a brilliant idea, they’d open a second
one about a hundred yards down the road. I always remember saylng, what’s the point of that, why
are you giving yourself opposition? And the answer was quite simple, this shop will be the higher
priced stuff, that shop will be the lower priced stuff. Somebody doesn’t like the higher priced stuff,
walk down the road. They sell them off cheap down there. And vice versa at the other place, They
had two shops there. Eventually got a car. With a chauffeur. I think he was just somebody on the
dole. Very nice guy. He was the guy that introduced me to speedway as it happened. Very good guy.
12: What was his name?
EL; Jim. Jim Baker. Never forget him. He was a most happy go lucky very friendly man. Always giving
us things or showing us things because my parents worked very long hours and didn’t have a lot of
time with us. He was such a lovely man. Then he had a tragedy, his daughter was killed. He became a
very nasty man. Very bitter man. But they had the two shops and eventually they decided they
would have a third shop. Of all places they went to Croydon. The other end of the world in London.
They were running three shops, we didn’t see a lot of them. We had a nurse. I can’t think of what
else went on. Otherwise we had a normal enough, happy enough childhood.
T2
l2: ls there anything you’d like to say to round off this interview?
EL; About what? What can you say to round off?
l2: What would you like to see happen eventually like to see happen about the disaster that hasn’t
already happened?
EL: I don’t think there’s anything now that hasn’t happened. Because the truth came out in the end.
That was done. ,And if anybody was to be compensated, it should have happened by now. And if it
hasn’t, I don’t think they’re probably still around. I don’t honestly know anything. I’m trying to think
of what stage they’ve got to with the memorial. I gathered it wasn’t finished yet.
l2: No, they’ve started, it’s in progress.
l: About half…
EL: Well if there was anything that can be done about that, it should be… since it was the
government’s fault in the first place, it should be them to put it right. They should make that
memorial happen. I had a feeling it was well on the way.
12: Well, thank you very much, it’s been a very enjoyable interview, of interest to all of us.
EL: Well, I hope it’s of some use to you.
l: Thanks very much, I really appreciate it very much. Thanks for your very clear recollections,
T-
13

Henrietta Keeper
Henrietta was opposite the underground station with her parents and her
sister’s friend Dolly on the evening of the disaster. Dolly urgently tried to
persuade Henrietta to go into the underground shelter with her so they could join her mother but Henrietta was too scared to leave her own mum. Henrietta found out two days later that Dolly had died on the underground steps.

Merncrial Frcj*ct
Mennorial Froject
Bethnal Green Memorial Project: Oral History 5ummary
Catalogue Number: lnterviewee/s:
Henrietta Agombar
lnterviewer/s:
Amy Murphy and Jo Till
Date of lnterview;
9 December 2013
Location:
Stepney Green
Length of interview:
90 minutes
Any other info:
Henrietta’s daughter is present during the interview
Time Stamp:
0:00
4:00
6:15
8:30
13:00
16:3O
20:00
21:30
Summary:
lntroduction. Henrietta explains how to pronounce her name and speaks about her
family history that she traces back to the French Huguenots, She grew up opposite the
old police station in Bethnal Green, near what used to be Camden Street.
When she was twelve and her sister was ten, they were evacuated to the countryside
near Bury St Edmunds, where she remained for three years. She returned home around
the time of the doodlebug and remembers many people being killed.
Henrietta speaks about the Anderson Shelter her family used. She describes how her
mother used to heat bathing water for her and her four siblings, and how she used to
wash the family’s laundry by hand.
Henrietta describes her father having a premonition. Eventually her family took shelter
near the railway arches at Bethnal Green Station rather than their Anderson shelter.
On the night of the disaster, she remembers hearing a very loud noise that scared her,
and then many people rushing towards the tube station. Henrietta did not want to go
down into the tube station and remained with her mother outside. One of her friends
followed her family down the stairs, and Henrietta later learned she had died.
She recalls rescue workers showing up at the station and beginning to bring out dead
bodies on stretchers, from small children to strong young men, laying them out on the
pavement” Many bodies were badly injured, with their intestines visible. She became
sick with shock.
Henrietta remembers learning of her friend’s death. After the disaster, she remembers
the police asking members of the public to link hands form a shielding ring around the
site of the accident.
She recalls first getting in touch with Alf Morris, and some details about how he was
I rescued from the crush. She has since gotten involved in fundraising efforts forthe
I Memorial Fund.
25:00 | Henrietta remembers some more detalls about the initial fundraising efforts for the
I memorial, and about the Borough of Tower Hamlets promising to match the Trust’s
I contributions.
I
I 26:15 | Her friend’s mother survived as she had already been underground in her bunk. Her
I friend, Dolly, was identified only by the ring she was wearing, which she had been given
I by her mother for her birthday.
I
I 27:3O I Henrietta states that the crush was caused by a mother with a pram falling at the
I bottom of the stairs. She also remembers the boxer Dick Corbett dying.
I
I 30:00 | She speaks once more about her father’s premonition that prevented her family from
I seeking shelter in their Anderson shelter, and how their neighbour’s house was
I completely destroyed by a bomb and the neighbour’s woman died in the bombing.
I
I 33:00 | Henrietta emphasizes that the bodies she saw coming out of the crush did not look as if
I they were asleep, but were badly injured. She remembers a large number of police
I officers on the scene.
i 34:45 | Henrietta used to work at a tailor’s shop, making Army clothes among other things. Her
I
co-workers used to write saucy poems and hide them in the clothing for the soldiers to
I find.
I
I 35:30 | She speaks about meeting her husband. He used to work with his brother, who was one
of the main coal merchants in the area. He passed by her house frequently, and one
day, he brought her a bag of oranges. She liked him immediately, though he was
initially involved with another girl. He then left the neighbourhood for two years for his
military service and tracked her down on his return, and eventually proposed to her.
443A Henrietta explains how she got the nickname ‘Minxy’ as a child.
46:00 | She remembers the food her family used to eat when she was a child, as well as some
stories about how they managed to get food on the table during hard times.
50:00 Henrietta shares more anecdotes about her family.
54:00 | Back to her friend Dolly who died in the disaster: Previously, she had also been
I
evacuated along with Henrietta and her younger sister.
I
55:00 | She recalls several jobs she had as a young woman, and how she learned a lot of craft
I skills including making hats and painting on glass and in oil.
I
I 62:00 | Henrietta has to take medication to help with the shock of seeing her husband die. She
speaks about health issues in general.
66:00 Henrietta sings l//r’ll you still love me tomorrow.
70:00 | She sings another song, this time a Cockney one, and speaks about how she has loved
insins since she was
79:00 | Henrietta remembers several families who lost many family members in the disaster.
80:00 | She speaks about some friends she has had throughout her life.
86:00 | Henrietta returns to the subject of her husband. When he returned from military
service, he brought her an Army cook book with recipes serving up to 700 men.
tvl*m*riml Frsjeet
Bethnal Sreen Memerial Project lnterview Transcript
lnterviewee (HA): Henrietta Agombar
lnterviewers (l): Amy Murphy, Jo Till
Henrietta’s daughte r (X)
Date: 9 December 2013
Location: Stepney Green
l: So this is the 9th of December 2013 and we are in Stepney Green. lt’s Amy Murphy and Joe Till
interviewing Henrietta Agombar. ls that how you say it, is it A-gom-bar?
HA: No, no, it’s A-gom-bar. You pronounce the A longer. That’s French. I’m from the French
Huguenots. She’s done the family tree since the 14th Century.
l: You’re joking.
HA: I’m the third Henrietta there is. ln the 14th Century an Henrietta, my mum was Henrietta, cause
I was the oldest she called me Henrietta. And I’m the third. I’m the third Henrietta.
l: How did you trace all the way back like that? Did you do a lot of research?
X: I was already doing it and someone else in our family made a book of it and they printed it all on
the internet, we asked could we copy it, he said yes and we printed it all off. lt went back to Jacques
Agombar in Picardy, France.
HA: I found a cousin I didn’t even know I had.
l: Here in London?
HA: Yeah. She’s got a firm. We went and met her. We looked for her and we couldn’t see her. All of a
sudden she comes… she dyed her hair red. She was really nice looking, you know. We said, here she
comes, I bet that’s her. lt was really nice.
l: lt’s nice to be able to do that isn’t it. To go back. And then meet people you never even knew
existed, lt’s an unusual name. I’ve never heard it before, I don’t think, that name.
X: When it was in France, it had an h on the beginning and a t on the end. When they come to
England cause they got persecuted, they fled to England. The first one was Pierre Hagombart, but he
changed it to Agombar, and he got married in St Dunstan’s. A lot of people do change their name
when they get persecuted don’t they? Dropped the h, dropped the t. So now it’s Agombar.
l:Ah! lt’s not a name I know. You said you were 87, Henrietta?
HA: No, not yet. 5th ofJanuary.
l: Sorry, I’m putting years on you. (laughs) 6th of January. 5o you’re 1927. Were you born in the East
End?
HA: I’m a cockney and l’m proud of it. Sorry. I don’t mean to be too much.
l: No, no! Which part of East London did you grow up in?
HA: You know Bethnal Green Road, You know the old police station? Opposite there was a pub
called the Sun. And that used to be called Camden Street, didn’t it? Later, it was called Ellsworth
Street. But when I was there, I lived down the bottom, I lived in Shetland Street. You couldn’t get out
of there. Well you could, but it was a school at one end, my school, and it had a great big gate, all
ornate and really nice and they had a big letter box. My mum used to make bread pudding, put it
through the door when we was all playing, in playtime, and the used to ring round me for a bit of
bread pudding. (laughs) Every Thursdayl
X: Mum, you’re sulpposed to be talking about the tube disaster.
l: That’s alright, we’ll get there.
HA: Anyway. I was 1″2 years old, and my sister was 2 years younger. The war was declared and all us
school children had to go evacuate. Sorry, if I forget names she can tell me, she can prompt me. You
better listen out thenl I remember having a little… you put a gas mask on. You had them in a box.
You all had your little box from your arm. You had your name there on a bit of cardboard, with a pin.
We all went by coach, and we was all took away, I went to a little village called Little Saxham. And
there was Great Saxham. But I was with a country family, Mrs Bullers and two sons, Charlie and Eric.
And that was 4 miles from Bury St Edmunds. 5o I was there for three years. Me mum used to come
down and see me. After three years I come home to the doodlebug. The doodlebug, is a bombs that
drop but you got no men in the plane. Not like you see men doing something like that and his little
aeroplanes go and he’s controllin in. Well that was controlled, but no men in it, but they did drop the
bombs. Terrible bombs. On the East End of London. And they caught so many people, especially
down the Roman. Yeah. So then we had Anderson shelters in the garden. lt was a dug-out, but so
many feet deep, it had a galvanised roof, galvanised walls. And we had a great big… it was oldfashioned.
My mum had a tin bath on a nail underneath the shed. A galvanised and she used to get
that end, boil all the kettles and wash all the kids. Us five.
l: Five! Big family.
HA: Yeah. Three sisters and one brother. Under the shed was a little copper. What I call a copper is a
granite… made of stone. lt had a cut-out like, you put your sheets in it with water. Little fire
underneath so it hots the water, She had a great big truncheon like a copper stick, like the coppers
had. No good people! (laughslShe used to go like that and pull it up and soapy water, and that’s how
you washed your sheets years ago. Didn’t have no washing machines in them days. Anyway. She
used to get it out, she used to get the old tin bath, fill it up with water and rinse it. And then she
used to hang it on the… they did work hard.
X: The tube disaster…
HA: Oh yeah, sorry.
l: Honestly, we’re interested in everything around it as well, Carry on.
HA: l’m getting up to thatl So when I come home, my dad, when the warning went, you could hear
them up above, going mmmmmh mmmmmmmh. And when it stopped, that’s the lull. You heard the
bombs dropping. 5o my dad had a premonition. And I’m coming tot he tube in a minute. Me dad had
a premonition. We had a great big long yard, and he had one sunflower in his garden, and we had a
toilet in the corner. He said, mind me flowerl He thought a lot of that, that’s all he had, he didn’t
have no more flowers. The cats went on it… we had spiders in our toilets. Kill the spiders! I had to
tell you that because it is definitely true, anyway. My dad had a premonition. He didn’t feel safe in
that little shelter. And the garden was long and it was right up near the Fowles’ house. And there
was a big wall. ln a minute. And over the wall was a row of houses, and my dad was right. He had
that premonition. So he went to the authorities. Today it’s the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, it
used to be the LCC, London County Council. That’s what it used to be called, but they changed it to
that.
He went there and he said, could I go somewhere else? And they said yeah you can go up… You
know Bethnal Green, the arch, where the Salmon and Ball pub is. They now sell office furniture
inside. lnside there, they let my dad have a bunk. They used to have bunk beds. We went up there
from then on. We used to go up there roundabout 5 o’clock. That’s when sometimes the warning
went and we was already in the bunk beds. When you asleep for the night. WE used to go up there 5
o’clock early. And all of a sudden, it wasn’t really my mate, she used to go to school with me, my
sister Marie used to go to go with this Dolly Warrington. Her name was Doris. And there was me
mum, and it was early evening. They used to sell baked potatoes and they used to have a furnace,
and a great big metal thing and it had all holes in it and you could have a warm bite, it was really
lovely. And buy baked potatoes. Anyway, I remember that as a little girl, and I was fifteen when I
come home there. My dad got us there, so we went there on this particular night, we went up there
at 5 o’clock… are you having me on the…? Oh, sorry.
There was me mum, me and me… I don’t know where my sister Marie was, but I think she’d gone
round her friend’s somewhere. There was… anyway. And Dolly Warrington, Marie’s mate, so she
said, oh people… my dad worked on the Bethnal Green tube, building it. And they stopped building
it cause of the War. They said they was goin to re-do it and go back to it when the War ended, which
they did, but at that moment he lost that job. So I know that bit. Alf they had so far was down the
tube where the accident was, was a great big cut-out where the trains and the line was going to be
put down. But they put boards over it with… what can I say? Bedding, to go asleep, for the night
time. They used to run down there. Her mum was down there. She used to go down there. And we
used to go in there, away from the bombs. Oh come with me, my mum’s gonna be worried about
me. So I said no, you go with your mum and l’ll keep with mine. And no warning had gone yet, there
wasn’t a warning. I do know that bit for sure. And so she said oh come on, and she’s gonna be
worried about me. I said, You go down there, go on. And all of a sudden there was a great big gam,
no one knew where it come from, Honestly it was really loud and it frightened everyone. So all of a
sudden I saw people frightened, I was frightened. That’s why I didn’t want to go with her after, I said
no. That’s why I wanted to keep with my mum. Holdin my mum’s arm. Really frightening. So all of a
sudden I saw people all running really over the tube, from Roman Road, Cambridge Heath Road, and
the rest up to Whitechapef. And I was standing there with my dad and I saw that. And ail of a sudden
let me think…
X: Dolly called you!
HA: Yeah she said, oh come… but let me go fast forward a minute, we found out from the East
London Advertiser a long while after that it was the RAF that was in Victoria Park that was trying out
a new ACAC gun, and it frightened and that’s what caused it. And you know what? All of a sudden I
looked up Bethnal Green Road, it was full of buses, all stopped. The whole lot. One minute, one
minute, I’m gonna come to that! The buses was all up there, they got everyone to do a ring right
over were that side, right round our side underneath the arch against the Salmon and Ball pub, and
all hold hands. No one couldn’t go by and that’s what the police done. And all of a sudden she said to
me, she was getting so frightened. I said I love my mum, I don’t want to leave her cause it frightened
me as well. I was scared cause it was so loud. Anyway she said oh come on so and then she got hold
of me skirt and said come one, pulled me skirt, I was getting fed up with it so I said all right, I got up,
lsaid come on then, ltooktwo steps and lheard thatACACgun going and everybody’s… no lsaid I
can’t go. I got hold of me mum’s arm again I said no. You go over there. I said look. She wanted to go
there, cause she was so frightened, she wanted to be with her mum. She was worried her mum was
worried about her. So she went. And two days later we found out she died in there. And I could have
gone with her and I didn’t. l’m so grateful. Leslie said she wouldn’t have been here if. I mean. I cry
sometimes,
l: I can’t even imagine what it must be like for you Henrietta.
X: What happened after… you see the bodies coming out…
HA: I can’t hear you! Oh yeah. So after that. All of a sudden, have you ever heard of RAP men, They
are not the police but they had big yellow lorries going rrrrrrrrrum, a noise. And they had tin hats
and they were more like police. And anyone who’s bombed and got buried alive, they were rescuers.
They used to get ’em out and save their lives. They all come out and all of a sudden we stand in there
and I went forward without telling me mum and dad, to the corner. We was under the arch. And
then the pub this side, and Cambridge Heath side, right, So I went there and I saw all the RAP rnen
coming out with all stretchers. And on ’em was dead people. Little boys. Great big sailor. I know a
family who lived on the back of Old Bethnal Green Road in my mum’s buildings. Me mum used to
live there. And that man, that young sailor, great big tall fit, he was home on leave, he died. He
couldn’t even save hisself. And they was bringin’ them all up. And all of a sudden, they laid them all
outside, the corner that’s jottin out at the arch. That entrance there, this side, round the corner,
opposite all the shops, one minute, that entrance wasn’t built yet. All it was is paper bloke, used to
sell papers. The RAP men was all carrying the stretcher and puttin’them all down Cambridge Heath
Road side of the pub. Loads of them. And then this side all here a little bit up to the arch. And I don’t
like to say it but it made me feel sick. lt was terrible to see, but every one of them had all their
insides out, and they all come like that. Like a pinky, whitey, sticky substance. What? I can’t hear.
X: Out of their mouth! Through their mouth!
HA: I can’t hear youl
X: Out of their mouth!
HA: Yes, out of their mouth. Sorry. Yeah.
X: This can’t see what you’re doing.
HA; And mydad come up to me. He lookin cause lgone forward cause I’m a little bit like Miss
Marple, l’m a bit inquisitive, I’m like that now. Sorry. {laughs) My dad come and got hold of me and
said, no that’s not for your eyes. Come away from it. And we forget all about goin’ there, but I don’t
know if it was a day after or the next day, we found out she died. And it was terrible. And I’m so
luckythat ldidn’tgowith her. Something made me stop, something made me say no. lwish I’d have
said to her, keep with us. But she didn’t want to stay with us. She said, no my mum’s going to be
worried about me. So she had to go. So that was it.
X: And everyone held hands round the bodies.
HA: Yeah, ltold ’em that! I was with’em and all, with me mum and dad.
l: So the police asked you, the public, to all hold hands around…?
HA: There was a great big ring of people holding hands. And another lady I knew, she was alive but
she was alive but she had a thumb like that permanently. And there was Alf Morris years and years
later. He was in it at that time but Leslie saw in the East London Advertiser, he said anyone who saw
the accident and who even saw the aftermath, which I did, said please phone this number. We
phoned it, I went and met him at the church, and he spoke about… and he’s so dedicated. When he
used to speak to us up there all about it, he used to cry. And you know what? He was the little boy,
and we saw it on the telly in Time Out, I was in Time Out on the telly and told my little bit. So he,
what was it? He was just goin under and they told me that they stopped building the… they didn’t
have no rails to hold on to. No rails nothing. And so he was trying.., he was just gonna go under, she
just saw his little ears, some lady who’d come up the stairs, nothing to do with the accident, she saw
him going under cause he was right near the front. Down the bottom. So she got hold of him and she
got hold of his hair, only his hair, she couldn’t get hold of nothing else cause he was goin’ under, She
pulled him out and saved him. And that’s Alf Morris, he’s now 70 something ain’t he? She phoned
him up to say I saw the aftermath. He’s so dedicated. And since then he’s lost his wife.
X: We done a collection.
HA; While we was there at the church, he gave us some paper, a lot, you know, and it said, you put
on every one how much people give to the donation. And their name. So he gave it to us, and me
and Leslie went in two pubs, it was up Whitechapel. What was it?
X: The Globe in Globe Road.
HA: Was it three pubs or two? How much did we raise?
X: You said it was about 400.
HA: Four hundred. Then I got all the money together, put it all in a little bag and went up the
Childhood Museum cause in there, they never used to, but you can hire tables and chairs. Not like
anyone who sells chairs. They have meetings. lt could be anything, you can hire them. They hired
that. And they was all there, Alf Morris was there. And I told him me story and I said thank you and
give the money. So I did contribute to it. We did contribute to it.
l: And what do you think about the memorial at Bethnal Green? Have you seen it?
HA: Yes, I have.
l: And what do you think of it?
X: lt’s unfinished.
l: About half way finished, yeah.
HA: They’ve had a lot to do because when they asked the London Borough Tower Hamlets to give
some money towards it they said, well if you raise so and so, we’ll put the same. And they had to
raise… what was it?
X: I don’t know how much it was, but it was half. They had to raise half.
HA: I thought it was 60.000 or something like that. An awful lot of money. You mean it’s not
finished? So they not got enough money yet?
l: Not yet, no, they’re still raising.
X: Doris Warrington, your friend, her name is on it already.
HA: I know, l’ve read it. I read it the other day, I was there.
l: Did her mum, was she in that disaster as well? Her mum, you said she was looking for her mum.
HA: No her mum was right down below. On the bunk beds. And they went there, they used to have
their food down there and tea and it was over where the trains would go. They had boards. And all
bed clothes. But the mother must have found out. And I didn’t know til two days later. Me and my
family didn’t know. We were so shocked. lt was terrible.
X: Didn’t they identify her by her ring?
HA: Oh yeah. They identified Doris, Dolly Warrington, by a ring what her mother bought her for her
birthday. So that’s the only way she could know. So when I go down that tube, I go all cold, I really
do.
l: Did you ever use it as a shelter after that? Did you ever go down again? During the war, as a
shelter? lnto the station?
HA: No, I didn’t, no. Terrible. And you know, That’s all I can tell you, I saw the aftermath and it was
the RAF that tried out that gun. What first started it was a lady, she had a little baby in a pram. A
little baby in a pram, and she was the first one. Down the stairs. She fell over, someone fell over on
top of her, and they all fell on top of each other. And they couldn’t save their selves. lf that big sailor
couldn’t, you know, save hisself, what could they do? And there was a boxer, I forget his name.
l: Dicky Corbett.
HA: Yeah, he died. And another lady from old Bethnal Green Road white buildings where my mum
lived. Although I lived in Shetland Street when I was little, you know. When me mum used to put the
bread pudding through the door. (laughs) What did I just say about…?
X: There was Derek’s sister or mum?
l: His sister and… was it Andy’s mum as well? Derek lost a couple of people in his family.
HA: There was a lady my mum knew who lived at the back of our house going towards old Bethnal
Green Road, where the church was. Her thumb was like that forever, cause she couldn’t move it
cause it was broke. I don’t know whether she had it done at the hospital, But she was lucky.
X: Mum, where you down the shelter on a separate occasion, there was an accident near your old
Anderson shelter.
HA: She has to remind me cause l’m getting old you see! (laughs) ls that all on there? Sorry. Ooh. I
better be careful. Anyway. He was right about that premonition. See it was a great big long yard,
And there was the fouls house, it had boards all round it so you could sit in it if you know what I
mean. And inside. Why I’m tellin you that I tell you later. And… one minute. Over the big wall we had
an ivy and there was the toilet, mustn’t forget the toilet. Go over. And you got the houses beyond
that. That house behind that wall got a direct hit. A bomb dropped on it. Man had his leg off and his
wife was dead under the floor boards. So that’s the premonition. And it was right next to it. I don’t
know why it just missed us, it could’ve gone on us. I’m saying, we didn’t get the bomb on us, but it
was dead right just over that wall, that was their house. lt was demolished.
l: And were you in your Anderson shelter at that time?
HA: No we’d all got out.
l: You went to the arches after he’d had that premonition?
HA: No. We didn’t see none of it. But my brother told me recently he went round there at the time
and he saw the man, lthinkthe man was stillalive but he had his leg right off. And his wife died and
she was buried under the floor boards. So that premonition was true. And the LCC, London County
Council, you know, they let him go up there. There was a lot of other people in there as well from
around. But it was all them RAF that caused it. That’s what they all said at the time, you know. Not
what I say. lt’s not what I say. lt’s what I heard other people say, and what they all thought. And it
was terrible.
l: After it happened, do you remember: was it in the news? Was it reported that this disaster had
happened?
HA: Yeah, I think it was, you know. But it was a terrible thing to happen. All them people lost their
lives. They was all frightened by that and they all run there. Why did they all run there and all fell
down? Have I satisfied your thing?
l: Yeah, ljust wanted to ask you a couple more things. Forgive me if it’s difficult to talk about, I
understand that. You mentioned that when they started to bring the stretchers up with people on
them, r&e’ve had some people say that the people all looked like they were just asleep because you
couldn’t see any marks on them. Your story is very different.
HA: I asked my mum what it was, and she said their inside was all come out. They was crushed. I
definitely saw that on every one/ men, dear little six year old little boy, and someone else, a little girl,
a mum. Who’s on that list, all that names. I definitely see that. And that’s the God’s truth.
l: And were the public helping to bring the injured and the bodies up? Were there police there?
HA: The police was all around and they all held hands. But them RAP men. I don’t know what ARP
means, I can’t remember. They was like police, but they was very good savers of them that’s buried
or something happens like that. That’s what everywhere had. They got a rotten job didn’t they. They
had a terrible job. And I used to work in the tailor for 30 years. I became a top machinist, and I made
the samples for the governor. And I used to get up the West End, Richard shops. He used to come
back smiling and say, we got work for a few weeks. And if they didn’t like it, the sample that I made,
he said no, we’re not, and we was all out of work. (laughs)
X: Did you make any Army clothes?
HA: Yeah, I used to make Army clothes at Madame Hatty’s. Up big street at the West End. One
minute. We used to make Army denims and the girls used to put notes in it to the soldiers. They
used to write saucy little poems. I didn’t do that because I was too young. I was very young. I wasn’t
old enough.
l: When did you meet your husband? Was that after the war?
HA: No, we had a farrier. You know what a farrier is? Shoes the horses on the anvil. Put the new
shoes. Down our turn in Shetland Street. The school at one end. You go in up the farriers, that side
was the farriers under a big shed. And he used to show the horses. But inside there was a side of the
house that was that street up there. And there was a court way, used to go into Punderson Gardens.
And that was a little grocery shop, the court \ /ay, you go down the next turn and then the house,
What was I gonna tell you?
X: Daddy. How did you meet daddy?
HA: One minute. Oh, we used to go to… what l’m sayin’ that for is… I gotta remember… one minute.
X: Wasn’t he a coal man? A coal man, used to bring the coal round?
HA: My brother-in-law was the biggest coal merchant in the East End. And another man named
Shorty. Cause he had so much money in his jacket, he used to go like this. {alllaugh)His name wasn’t
Shorty but they called him that cause the money weighed him down. lt was him and that was
another coal man, nothing to do with us. But my brother-in-law, Jim, I got a photograph. I got a
book, some lady wrote it who lives in South End about me life story, another one. My husband used
to work… one minute.. with him. Delivering coal. Right? So he used to go by my house in Shetland
Street, I used to be at the door and he’d say, hello curly. Cause I had all curly hair. Cause I straighten
it now, I still got curly hair. I used to break all my mum’s combs. And he used to say hello. He used to
go out and come back with all the new shoes on the horse and go by, he used to come up there
every so often, and one day he brought me a bag of oranges. He said I bought you these. {laughs}
And I did like him, I thought he’s nice. Anyway. Oh. So he was goin’with a girl named Gladys, I knew
about it, but nothing to do with me. I didn’t go with him, he just used to go and buy me things, you
know. One day, he had a mate, what’s that way… his mate Jimmy, his dad had a shop. What’s that
called there? Near the lane? Not Petticoat Lane. The little bit of lane.
X: l’ve forgotten what it’s called. From Vallance Road to Brick Lane.
HA: Vallance Road. Anyway, his mate after two years, we used to go to Arthur’s Cafe. We used to all
congregate in there and eat an evening meal. Some of ’em was at a gang, and this gang used to say,
don’t come in today cause we got someone comin’ and there might be a fight in there. So we didn’t
go. They used to warn us. So when I used to go in there my husband was in there. I didn’t know him
much. He said hello Curly. Kept calling me Curly. Anyway. Now, time’s lapsed, and at that time the
government wanted all the young boys at the age of eighteen or near it to go do two years Army
service. My husband had to go. But he wasn’t me husband then, I didn’t know him much, But he
knew me as when he used to go by me house right. He was away for two years, and guess what.
After two years, I moved from there, and I went down Pritchatts Road in Hackney Road. And it was
in a green grocer’s shop. My mum had the top half and the green grocer was just down below. But
down below was a… wasn’t nothing, it was a granite sink, very stark, no one used it. I tell you that
cause I gonna tell you some in a minute about it. So what was I gonna say?
X: He come home from the Army… and the women he was gonna marry… she went with someone
else.
HA: One day there was a knock on my door after two years, listen to this.
X: She went with someone else,
HA: So Jimmy Sauls, his mate, he said I been working hard all day, and he’s drove me mad, wonder
where she lives. My nickname when I was a little girl was Minxy. Minxy Agombar. And he said, he’s
drove me mad, can you tell me where she lives, lwantto go round and see her. Aftertwo years, I
don’t know whether he give his girl up or not.
X: She married someone else while he was away,
HA: Listen. So he knocked on the door, he said l’m tired, me husband worked with him then cause he
was home from the Army. He was a cook in the Army. He said I’m gonna leave him here alright, so I
had to ask him in. And I went with him ever since. ilaughs) And he used to bring his own coal. His
brother was a coal man and he worked for him after that. I used to look out the window coming
from the top of the road, what’s he carrying? And when I looked in it was the coal! He put it on my
mum’s fire, cause we was all poor, And after that she moved and he used to come round there. And
then one day, this is the God’s truth, we went down there and we put a couple of seats down there.
It was so stark, it was cold and damp, there was nothing down there, it looked like a load of granite.
He went down on one knee and he said to me, will you marry me? I said oh go on, you’re only makin’
out. I said, I don’t believe you. I wouldn’t have it. So when I saw that he meant it, I said alright, ask
me again! {all laugh) And then lgotan engagement ring. And I used to say, cause ldidn’t like to let
him know I was poor, I said, I’m getting at Levine’s, they used to make a lovely wraparound skirt and
a lovely costume jacket. I said I gonna get it home soon, I was always tellin’ lies cause I didn’t want
him to know I was poor. So when he said, when you getting that home, I said, I had to tell him the
truth. I said I never did cause I didn’t want to be shown up. So he went to Levine’s, and paid for one
and let me… and I had it made. And he come with me. So funny. What else?
X: I think that’s it, innit.
l; Why did you get that name, Minxy? Why was that?
HA: When lwas little, little bawl baby, my mum and dad used to have a drink in the Duke of York
that was down Shetland Street. ln there, and they didn’t have no children, and they really took to
me, they loved me as a little baby. So their name was Mr and Mrs Mingo. So my dad named me
Minxy. That’s how I got that name. You know what, my dad, we was all poor, sometimes I
remember, used to have a penny OXO, put it in the water and dip your bappy in it. But my dad had a
lovely voice and he taught me how to sing, and l’ll sing at all the libraries now and at Pellicci’s. They
let me sing up there. Cause I used go and to take her in there when she was four. My dad taught me
how to sing. And I really can, can’t l? What?
X: Tell her, he used to bring the money home…
HA: Oh yeah, me dad… Saturdays and Sundays we had beautiful food. And Thursdays me mum done
bread puddin’, I told you. And she used to have a great big conger eel, clean it all out with salt and
put the water on it to clean it, and then she used to cut it, little pepper corns, that made it taste nice.
We used to have that on a Saturday. And potatoes. They didn’t have no money. Not hardly. What I
used to do, he used to gc to the Duke of York, put his foot in the door, so that it’d be half open, and
he used to sing. And he had such a beautiful voice. And he used to get his cap off, go round and they
all put the money in. He was full-up. I remember me bein’ in my kitchen, and he used to me being in
my kitchen, and he used to take the cap and go… and all the money \A/ent… on the table. And that’s
how my mum could have a lovely roast dinner on a Sunday. And on a Saturday we had the conger
eel and potatoes. And not only did we have a lovely roast dinner, we had a lovely Sunday tea later,
you know. Later in the day. We used to have winkles, Dutch herrings, cake, you name it, we had it.
You know the little winkles? We used to get the little thing. Put it on there, we used to say it looked
like Margaret Lockwood. And my mum was such a comedian. Someone gave my dad a piano. He was
u/orse than that. And when she used to go in any play, she was, it might have been in the afternoon,
she was havin’ a cup of tea with all her mates. Used to say, he couldn’t play. She was glad when he
come off of it.
l: He didn’t make any money off the piano then.
,
HA: She was so funny. she used to go out the pork butchers, you know where lceland is now’ on the
corner there, there was a pork butchers, she used to go in there and make ’em all laugh’ She’d say’ I
want four nice pork chops, she said, and I don’t want donkey chops. He said, we don’t sell donkey
chops. Sort of larking about with her and all. cause they knew what she was’ so she said’ you know’
them ones with the big handles. You know across the pub, there was a row of houses there and row
of houses there, and a court way, But that row of houses there was opposite the school gate’ used
to put the bread pudding… The other side was when it was raining all the kids was out to play in the
playground, they used to go under that shed’ lt was a shed over the other side’ we used to climb up
there, get the string, like not string, cotton, but it’s that thick cotton you know, not ones that break’
And we used to tie it on the knockers of all the houses this side. And we used to go like that and we
used to bunk up there, and someone got on that, you know, and we laid flat on the shed like this’
And we used to go like that and the lady used to come out”‘ I can’t tell you the F-s she said’ You
effin’…
X: Mum. I’m talking about the post office in Roman Road’
HA: yeah yeah, in a minute. So she, I can see ya, ya you dirty ppppfff . I’ll get hold of you, I’ll tell your
mother. And all that. we was all laughing. That was called down knocking down ginger’ shows you
what a laugh my mum was. My dad was clean right. But cause she had five children, she had the tin
bath, great big galvanised bath, under the shed. Even the roof of that had a copper, to do the
washin,. she used to get it in and bath us all in there. But my dad didn’t because he’s a grown-up and
it took so long to do that with the kids. So he used to go to the York Hall Baths’ So as he went out the
door she used to get a, she used to get a knife and fork and put a what’s the name round it, a paper,
a tissue, she said: That’s to get the dirt off, as he walked out. But larkin’about’
X: You ain’t told her about the post office’
HA: yeah. Oh. One day, my mum went to the post office and she took my little brother. I don’t know
how old he was. He’s still alive. He’s about 79 now. Something like that. l’m older than him. So she
took him with her. What my brother told me when he come back, I couldn’t stop laughing’ A man
held up that post office in Roman Road. And there was crowds had gathered. And my mum was
amongst the crowds. she come out and she saw it all happenin. The senior head of scotland Yard,
the senior one, detective, was there. And all his lesser ones’ you now’ So all of a sudden’ he went in
there with a gun, a so-called gun, took the money cause they was frightened and he run out and run
off. So the head detective said, did anyone see what he looked like? So my mum put up her hand,
being a comedian. {laughs) She said, yeah, he had ten rums and a ginger cat’ Ten rums and a ginger
cat. Everybody laughed, they forgot about… l’ll tell you what, she’s so funny, my mum should’ve
been a comedian. Honestly. Ten rums and a ginger cat. Nothing to do with it, is it. lsn’t it the money?
What did his face look like? ls there anything else?
l: Have I forgotten anything Jo? Oh I did want to ask you, your friend, what school did she go to, do
you know?
HA: I can’t remember that. But my sister Marie died in 7997, she had cancer of the”‘
X: 1989.
HA: Are you sure? Oh, sorry. I forget sometimes’
X: Doris Warren, didn’t she evacuate with you?
HA: She did. She stayed with the priest and his wife with the church, who was to do with the
church… She was evacuated all that time, came home and died’
10
l; Did you want to come home after the evacuation? Or did you enjoy being out in the country?
HA: Well, I was a bit frightened. And the reason why a lot of people called me Joan, me mother in
law called meJoan, all the neighbours round where I lived round Cambridge Heath Road called me
Joan. Because I’d lost a little bit of me Cockney accent cause of being a country bumpkin. So I’ve
come home and I went to get me first job. I got one pound seven shillings of the old money. And it
was up Cambridge Heath Road but not quite to Hackney. lt was just past… do you know any pubs
there at all?
l: Only a couple.
HA: There’s a pub called The Hare, and it’s just over where the bridge is. lt’s not even in Hackney, it’s
still in Cambridge Heath Road. A little way up. Just passed Hackney Road, where Hackney Road
starts, with the arch, just past there. And I went in there, and I’d lost a little bit of me Cockney
accent, so I was interviewing me, the guv’ner, to get the job. I got the job anyway. So she come in,
she said, what’s your name love? So I didn’t like sayin’ Henrietta cause it’s so posh. So I said on the
top off me head I said Joan. I got a lot of aliases.
X: They didn’t interview you in the pub, you went to a firm.
HA: What? They did, that was the firm. I said it’s near there. I became top machinist. I started with
linings, just making linings, then I got job after job, and I worked down Princelet Street down Brick
Lane. For Solly Winer, a Jewish man. He used to say to this lewish girl, what was it? Babela, put the
kettle on, we’re all gonna have our tea, you know. I worked there for a very long time and I became
a very good machinist. That’s why I can make things meself, Know them floppy hats. You got a little
flower there and… the little girls hats. I used to make them. I used to go to them charity shops, buy
the biggest fattest woman’s skirt to get… I cut al[ the hats out of it. I washed it first in the
launderette, cause you didn’t know what germs was on it and I made these hats. And my aunt
Lorraine used to take me to the boot sales and I used to sell ’em for six quid. I done all that, and I
done a lot of things. And I’ve done painting on glass. You know, a lovely wine bottle, it goes like that.
I can paint lovely flowers on. lt’s special glass paint. So to prove to you that I can paint, l’m gonna
show you something. One minute.
{short pause while Henrietta goes to find some of her artwork to show}
HA: That’s the first one I done. I copied it but I put all my own things on it. I rubbed it out three
times. I eventually got it. This is thorns and it says look and ye shall find, And I done that without a
ruler or nothing.
l: Oh yes, lovely. They’re great.
HA: I done that all in 1981.
l: That’s the year lwas born… (laughsl Beautiful.
HA: That’s just landscape. You can go for a walk in the woods.
l: ls that somewhere you know, that landscape there? ls it painted from sight?
HA: I saw a picture of a lot of.. I imagined it and I done it… I didn’t do that. My relation done that.
l: l’ll say for the recording so that we know what we’re lookin’ at, we’ve looked at four pictures.
Ll
They’re all oils aren’t they? Four oil paintings by Henrietta. That one reminds me of Norfolk or
something!
X: You’re Scottish. My dad’s family was Scottish. From Aberdeen.
l:Ah, from Aberdeen!
HA: All the others I give to me other grandchildren…
l: Oh, look at that one! A church on a hiil.
HA; I bought loads more paint and I’m gonna start painting again. Cause l’ve been so ill, fractured
shoulder. Tooth knocked out in Nicolas Road. I’ve had eight falls in four years, nine months each I
was housebound. I’ve suffered. And up in a year I’ve had no sleep. I’ve been backto the dentist,
backwards and forwards to the hospitaland they found that I had a splintered bit of jawbone and it
had turned septic. I was thought I had cancer. Really worried, and you know what, I didn’t get no
sleep. That’s why I look a bit batty-eyed. But I’m getting better now. But I had it done. I had an
operation and they took it all out. And cleaned it all up. And I’m getting’ all better now, Plus, there’s
more! I have to take morphine. The shock of losing my husband on the settee. He died in front of
me, on the settee. And it caused me to have an irregular heartbeat. So I have to take morphine. lt
thins your blood. lt makes your blood go through more easily, lt stops the clots. lt saves your life. I
do it really good. Cause I write it all down, I’m very good at it. Some lady at the bingo, she’s just
started and she drops them all on the floor, and she says I don’t like it, I spit them all out. You know.
But I do it to the t, cause I know what I’m doin’. lt keeps you alive. But I don’t suffer. But did you
know I’ve got a balance problem. Something in your ears it’s called… not vertigo. Something’ in your
ears that don’t work properly. lt’s not a disease, but they call it meniers. I’ve looked it up. But it’s
something that’s not working. lt’s not a disease. So I got that, so when I go out me daughters look
after me wonderful. They take me Mondays to get me pension, they take me twice every now and
again when I want me shoppin. And she takes me to Pellicci’s Friday and you know what he does. He
gets a great big ladle up there, and he’s got a little metal jug. He goes, crash bang wollop! All stop
eatin’, Henrietta’s gonna sing! And then llet me little thing out – I’m gonna show you!
l: Oh watch out, don’t trip, it’s not the equipment l’m worried about, it’s youl
{Short conversation about the weather in Aberdeen while Henrietta is out of the room, then
Henrietta returns with a children’s rnicrophone)
X: ls that what you sing with when you sing in Pellicci’s?
l: Henrietta has pulled out a microphone. A yellow and pink microphone. ls that what you sing in?
HA: Yeah, I sing in this! After… I like to sing that one first. She don’t like me singin’ this one l’m gonna
sing to you. lt’s called the Shirelles in America. Your mum would know. Or your grandma would
know. They was really good. They sang a lot of songs, but I like this one the best. One minute. ls it
gonna be on there? I’ve not had my cake yet…
(Henrietta sings ‘Will you still love me tomorrow?’ by the Shirelles, applause)
HA: My dad, I don’t know where he got it from, he used to sing,.. have you ever heard of Hackney
Empire? A pub next door to it, and all it’s got is a door outside. I used to think it was a building. Just
the door you saw. lt’s still there, it’s called The Ship. We all used to go there, me dad and me mum,
Cathy, Marie me sister, we used to sing like the Beverley Sisters or the Andrews Sisters years ago.
Your mum would know the Beverley Sisters. And I’ll tell you what, we used to sing up there, and I
L2
don’t know who gave this to my dad but he had it wrote down and I wrote it in my book, I still have
it in there. What was it? lt must have been a vaudeville number or a music hall number. After them
wonderful comics years ago, he was appearing there. So when they say they’re resting, in the pub
havin’ a drinlg he had my dad sing this. He said l’m a comedian, and you made me laugh, he said to
my dad. Yeah.
X: The Cockney one, here it comes.
HA: Ha ! (laughs) And you don’t have to have a nice voice for this one, you just sing it in a Cockney
voice. lt’s a gall blimey one.
(sings: I had a little bedroom to let, the rent was half a crown, a smart young lodger who took the
room into the name of Brown, he hadn’t been there a week or so we tumbled too his wees and now
we’re runnin’ a show like a lot of performing please. We’re all at home, bobbin’ about like ginger
beer, round we march. We all say v/e, we we we. The salty mish goes like this, like in gay Paris. The
sea was very wet, the boat was very dry. The boat was riggin’, they were all singing and so was l. We
got the women and kids and chucked them in the sea, and everybody aboard the boat would say
pardon me. Now all along the rows, what a lively time, shouting out the chorus in every song we
sang. We laughed, we chuffed, we told some fairy tales. We laughed, we chuffed til two in the
morning all along the rails. Now I tee tiddly dee I tee, tickle me under the nighty. Blighty is the place
for me. Now round and round we march. I know where to find me grub round the Marble ArchJ
HA: I haven’t had me cake yet! The tea’s gone cold !
l: You’ve earned the cake. You sang for your supper.
HA; I know lsts of songs.
X: Sometimes she goes in Pellicci’s, and people like her singing so much, they pay for her dinner.
HA: I sing for me supper, and sometimes he gives me a lovely bread pudding in a silver wrapper.
X: lt’s replicating what dad done, eh.
HA: And I do Perry Como’s one, you know. Don’t look so sad… I know it’s over… it’s lovely. I’m
enjoying my old age, you know.
l: Sounds like it! Jo, was there anything you wanted to ask? I think Jo might have a couple more
questions, if you’re ok…?
HA: I’m sorry if I’ve took up your time. Have I took up too much of your time?
J: No, it’s been brilliant! I know Pellicci’s, the cafe. Have you been goin’there long? Did you go there
when you were younger?
HA: Yeah, when Leslie… how old are you now?
X: She lived on Vallance Road. And I’ve been going since I was about three years old.
HA: No one had any televisions, only my mother in law. She had a console model. A great big thing
down to the ground, you know, with little legs. And we used to go up Bethnal Green Road to the
launderette to take our washing. No one had washing machines in them days. So instead of stayin’ in
the washing machine shop waiting for our washing, we used to go in Pellicci’s. How old were you,
13
about three? A little baby, Lorraine, who lives now down the street, she was a little bawl baby, Linda
was on the seat. She was a little bit older, she was two years older. There was Leslie holdin’ on the
side. And one day I was in there, she went outside, there was a stall sold all little girls’trinkets. You
know like little brooches, little bows for your ear. She was out there an hour, I was watchin her, She
come in with a brooch, you know a boater hat when they go to the regatta rowing, well this little
brooch with a pin at the back, I paid for it, brought her in, put it on. The ones who own Pellicci’s now
is the Anna, his sister and Nev, Neville, and the mother, still alive. The boy that was there and he said
to her…
X: The dad, mum.
HA: The dad, who died, who was the last police. They had the caf on the corner as well. And my
relation used to go clubbing with them, you know, the Pellicci brothers. There was a lot of ’em ! But
they all died out, and his dad was the last one to go. And that was five years ago. He’s got his photo
in there.
X: Every time he see me he used to say, where’s my hat. When I was little.
HA: Yeah, they tried to nick it, she said: No, it’s mine! Anyway. Fast forward it, right. lt was a bit
windy, so we were going along. His dad was alive then, about five years ago. He had just shut, about
four o’clock. So he said, where’s my hat? After so many years. She was only little. We came running
back, we say: How did you know it was us? He said, we could tell you anywhere, you two. I used to
go in there with me mother in law at the same time. I took her and the babies. So one day, fast
forward it now, about two or three years is it I’ve been singing. Not sure. Two and a half years. Nev
said to me, someone told me you could sing. So I said, who told you that? He said, a little dickie bird.
Having a go at me. So he said, do you want to sing now? I didn’t want to tell him twice, did l. So he
said, go on. He got hold of this ladle and on this thing, crash bang wollop, all stop eating, Henrietta’s
gonna sing. And l’ve been singing ever since, every Friday. But sometimes I don’t go because she has
a.,. she goes to funerals and she helps at the funerals, you know, where our bingo club is. A lot of
people hire that hall for someone died. She helps with all the food. She’s a very good adder-upper
behind the bar. I must say she’s very clever at adding up. Me, I have to get a bleetin’ pen and a paper
and say, write it down. Not out me head. But I got other things I can do good.
J: Can I ask you one other thing? You mentioned a few times a shop called Levine’s, I think it was?
HA: lf you wanted to look smart and have a costume, you go to Levine’s. lt used to be down the
Roman, but it ended up the top of, in the city, up that way. Right up Bethnal Green Road and turn
way towards Liverpool Street. Somewhere round the area. That’s where… he couldn’t stop laughing.
Cause I was too poor, Anyway..,
J: Can I ask as well, you mentioned a family called Correls?
HA: They lived in the white buildings in old Bethnal Green Road? What’s that pub that used to be
there?
X: iack’s house.
HA: Yes, but the pub that used to be there, it’s all pulled down now… the pub. I think they all died.
l’m not quite sure.
X: There was one family that lost quite a lot of their family, lt could have been the Correls. I’m not
sure.
L4
l:There’s one I know, Quones as well. They lost I think three generations, I think two people from
each generation they lost. Terrible, a whole family, you know.
J: Have you got friends that still live round here now, that you’ve known since you were little?
X: She has that friend of 93 that was her bus stop mate when she was and she lives in the flats across
the road.
HA: Me bus stop friend. She goes on 94 now. And Anna, who sits next to me, I look after her. She
was L00 on the 15th of this month, and she had a party, we all went round there. I bought her
something, well I’ve gotta still buy it… she likes the moisturiser, what’s it called? I asked down the
Roman, what’s name? Chemist. They said, we ain’t sold that for twenty years. (laughsi What’s it
called? Almay? I still gotta buy it for her, gotta find a way to get it. I think up the West End I’d get it.
Anyway, every week she said, you look after me wonderful. She’s always hungry. So I go in Greggs
round there in the square down the Roman and I get her a great big soft roll, not an old one, cause
she’s got false teeth. lt’s got cheese, tomatoes, ham, you name it, it’s got in it. lt’s beautiful. I got all
the handkerchiefs with it, you know. And I bring it back, she gives me the money for it” This week I
didn’t have to get it because they brought her a great big cake with 100 on it. She said, oh that’s
lovely, I don’t know what I’d do without you. She drops anything, I pick it up. Her pen runs out with
the bingo, I give her a new one. Anything she does, I know what you done when you’re old, she’s just
done finished a sheet with the numbers on I get a bag and I keep it nice and clear, cause the other
one is liable to keep spilling her tea. I have to look after the both of them. Wipe it all down, and I
wash all the cups before we have our tea in it because you don’t know who’s been drinking out of
’em and they’ve not washed ’em up properly. I’m terrible! I’m very clean.
X: Our other friend who’s 94, l’m taking ’em out next Saturday. I’ve taken him out before. I take ’em
where there’s music and Anna dances the night away. She’s really spritely. She walks everywhere on
her own.
HA: She goes at the pie shop before she comes to Bingo. Gets a bus down.
X; Last time I took em done, I took em to the Bancroft Arms in Mile End Road. And we was there til
half past two in the morning. At two o’clock Anna went, oh my god, my family, I didn’t tell them
where I gone. They might wonder where I am, can I borrow your phone? I give her me phone, she’s
woken up her family. They don’t live with her, she’s woken em up purposefully anyway. After that
it’s all gone round the family, they phoned each other and said, nanny phoned me at 2 o’clock in the
morning, she was in the lock-up. (laughs) I’m taking her out next Saturday with my mum.
HA: Cause she helps Elaine, whose club it is… oh, you’re not working? You do sometimes. She’s very
good behind the bar. She can say, if someone said four Guinesses, gin and tonic, da da da… she can
add it out of her head. Marvellous.
X; We didn’t have calculators in my days.
HA: lt’s been handy for her, when she’s not at a job or at work, she can do that. lt’s really good that
you can earn a bit of money when you not got no job.
X: Any more questions?
l: I don’t think so, we’re alright.
HA: There’s one thing I’d like to tell you. When my husband was eighteen, he went to.,. the
government decided that all 1″8 year olds had to do two years Army service, so he got called up and
15
he was a cook in the Army. So he was… I told you. And after that, you know. When he come home
he said, I brought you a cookery book home. I said, oh that’s good, I was really thrilled. But what I
didn’t know, it was an Army cookery book. So it said, it was for 700 men. (laughs) And when I heard
thatlwaslike… lgotabitfunny.Oneminute.Solsaid, llookedatit, lsaid,for700men, lsaid
there’s only me and you. He was only very young. What have I got to do? He said, half that, half 700,
half that again, half that again… So I got wild now. I had one of them bins, when you go like that it
makes a really big noise. The lid comes down. So I said, every time I gotta do something for two I
gotta half it, half it, half it, half it. I said, you want me to swear? I said… I can’t tell you unless I swear.
I said, pack your f ucking cookery book – bam I And it went in the bin. And I never saw it ever since.
(laughs) I couldn’t do mathematics when I was young! lt’s like doing mathematics! ln school! You
gotta do your bleetin’… sorry I had to swear.
J:That’s a great story, lthink lwould have sworn too.
l: Thanks very much for your time. Thanks, Henrietta.
15
What follows is a list of all of the victims
VICTIMS LIST
AARONS, Betty Diana, 14. Daughter of Arnold Aarons.
ASSER, Jessie Louisa, 33. Daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Sharman.
BAILEY Mary,72.
BAILEY, Rose Ethel May,41. Wife of William Bailey.
BAKER, George Stephen, 38. Husband of A. A. Baker.
BAKER, MinnieAmelia, 14. Daughter of A. A. Baker & George Stephen Baker.
BASS, Eileen Dorothy Margaret, 7. Daughter of Jesse and Maria Bass.
BEAKEN, Eileen Louisa, 17. Daughter of Henry Beaken and Ethel Louisa Beaken.
BEAKEN, Ethel Louisa, 53. Wife of Henry Beaken.
BEAKEN, Matilda Jean, 42. Daughter of Henry Beaken and Ethel Louisa Beaken.
BEGER/BERGER, Emily Jemima, 57.
BENDON, Elizabeth, 38.
BENNETT, Emma Maud, 48. Wife of Matthew Bennett.
BOSWORTH, Edith Priscilla, 50. Daughter of Mrs. P. Rudd, of 36 Hemming Street;
widow of William Bosworth.
BOSWORTH, lrene Priscilla, 17. Daughter of Edith Priscilla and the late William
Bosworth.
BOWLING, Bessie, 59. Wife of Thomas E. Bowling.
BOWLING, Eliza, 31. Daughter of Thomas E. Bowling and Bessie Bowling.
BOXER, Annie Louise,24. Daughter of George and Elizabeth Knight; wife of John
Boxer.
BROOKSTONE, lsrael,67. Husband of Sarah Brookstone.
BROOKS, Henry Norman, 10. Son ol Allred Edmund Brooks and Jessie Elizabeth
Brooks.
BROOK$, Jessie Elizabeth, 46. Wife of Alfred Edmund Brooks.
BUTTERFIELD, Allan, 3. Son of George and Charlotte Butterfield.
BUTTERFIELD, Charlotte, 28. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Hicks; wife of George
Butterfield.
BUTTERFIELD, George, 28. Son of Mr and Mrs Butterfield, husband of Charlotte
Butterfield.
CHANDLER, Doreen Mary, 14. Daughter of Thomas G. Chandler and Lilian Mary
Chandler.
CHANDLER, Lilian Mary, 31/35. Wife of Thomas G. Chandler.
CHAPMAN, Charlotte Elizabeth, 25. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Barr; wife of William
Edward Chapman.
CHAPMAN, George James, 23. Home Guard. Son of George Albert Chapman;
husband of Alice Chapman.
CLATWORTHY, lris Jean, 8. Daughter of Richard Henry and Carline Clatworthy.
CLATWORTHY, Joan Betty, 9. Daughter of Richard Henry and Garoline Clatworthy.
COLEMAN, Maude Louisa, 54. Wife of Edward George Coleman.
COLEMAN, Richard,34. Son of Henry Coleman and the late Elizabeth Coleman,
husband of Lilian Rose Coleman.
COLLETI Doreen, 10. Daughter of Charles Thomas Gollett and Rose Emma Collett.
COLLETI Ronald, 8. Son of Charles Thomas Collett and Rose Collett.
COLLETT, Rose Emma, 50. Wile of Charles Thomas Collett.
COURT, Patricia Marie, 24. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Murphy; wife of Thomas Court.
DAY, John Lewis, 69.
DONGREI Annie, 22.Wite of Leslie Dongrey.
ELLAM, Annie Eva, 44. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Hickey; wife ol William G. Ellam.
ELLAM, Frances Lilian, 20. Daughter of William G. Ellam and Annie Eva Ellam
ELLAM, Pauline Patricia, 2. Daughter of William G. Ellam and Annie Eva Ellam.
EL[-AM, Rosina Ellen, 17. Daughter of William G. Ellam and Annie Eva Ellam.
EMERY, Clara,77.
FLETCHER, Alexander, 3. Son of Alexander Fletcher (H.M. Forces) and Elizabeth
Fletcher.
FLETCHER, Elizabeth, 28. Daughter of James Ridley; wife of Alexander Fletcher.
FORBES, lrene Catherine, ’17. Daughter of Leonora Forbes.
FORBES, Leonora,57.
FOWLER, Mary Ann, 45.
FRENCH, Lilian, 29.
GEARY, Carole Ann, Smonths. Daughter of George Geary.
GEAHY, Sylvia Sadie, 6. Daughter of George Geary.
GROVER, Ethel, 48. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Sandle; wife of Josiah William Grover.
HALES, Joseph Alexander, 53. Husband of E. B. Hales.
HALL, Annie Jessie, 52. Wife ol William Thomas Hall.
HALL, Edna Phoebe, 13. Daughter of William Thomas Hall and Annie Jessie Hall.
HALL, lrene, 8. Daughter of Frederick Hall and Mary Ann Hall.
HALL, f\tlary Ann, 47. Wife of Frederick Hall.
HAMMOND, Rhoda, 44. Wife of John David Hammond.
HARRIS, Olive Margaret, 17. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Harris.
HAWLEY, Leonard Joseph, 64.
HAYMAN, Mary Ann, 19. Daughter of Albert Hayman.
HEWITI Mary Kathleen lvy,27, Wife of Leslie George Hewitt.
HIGGINSON, Emily, 62 Wife of John Ashworth Higginson, of 10 Seabright Street.
HILLIER, Mary Ann 61. Widow of Charles Edwin Hillier.
HISCOKE, lvy Winitred,22. Daughter of Mrs E. Nicholls; wife of Albert James
Hiscoke.
HOYE, Lillian, 13. Daughter of Louisa Hoye.
HOYE, Louisa, 44. Mother of Lillian, Margaret and Rosina Hoye.
HOYE, Margaret, 7. Daughter of Louisa Hoye.
HOYE, Rosina, 19. Daughter of Louisa Hoye.
HUTCHINSON, Joan Peggy, 10. Daughter of William Percy Hutchinson.
rHUTCHINSON,
William G, 6. Son of William Percy Hutchinson.
INGLE, Agnes Maud, 28. Wife of Stanley lngle.
JOHNSON, Caroline lvy, 14. Daughter of Maud Sophia Johnson.
JOHNSON, Ellen Emma, 6. Son of William Charles and Harriet Johns.
JOHNS, Peter Alan, 7. Daughter of Maud Sophia Johnson.
JOLLY, Sarah Ann, 51.
JONES, Estella, 59. Wife of J. B. Jones.
JULIER, Henry, 18. Son of Henry and Ethel Julier.
KOROBENICK, Eliza Matilda, 33. Daughter of Charles Victor Mead.
LAND, Barbara Anne, 7. Daughter of James William and May Land.
LAND, Martha Elizabeth, 55. Wife of Henry Albert Land.
LAPHAM, Ronald Roy, 15. Son of Mr and Mrs Lapham.
LAWSON, Anthony William, 7. Son of William Lawson.
LAWSON, Patricia Eileen, 3. Daughter of William Lawson.
LAZARUS, Morris, 42. Light Rescue Service. Son of Mr and Mrs Lazarus; husband of
Rosy Lazarus.
LECHMERE, Florence Rosetta, 66. Wife of Thomas Allen Lechmere.
LECHMERE, Thomas Allen, 66. Husband of Florence Rosetta Lechmere.
LECHMERE, Thomas Charles, 43. St. George Cross 4th Class. Son of Thomas Allen
Lechmere and Florence Rosetta Lechmere; husband of May Lechmere.
LEGGETT, Benjamin George, 31. Son of Mrs L. Leggett; husband of Rose Maud
Leggett.
LEGGEfi, Rose Maud, 31. Wife of Benjamin George Leggett.
LEGGETT, Roy Benjamin, 7. Son of Benjamin George and Rose Maud Leggett.
LEWIS, George Ronald, 10. Son of George Thomas Lewis and the late Jessie
Catherine Lewis.
LEWIS, Lillie Elizabeth, 14. Daughter of George Thomas Lewis and the late Jessie
Catherine Lewis.
LOFTUS, John Samuel, 13. Son of Mr and Mrs James Loftus.
LOFTUS, Louisa Ellen, 15. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Loftus.
MAGUIRE, Jean Mary, 8. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Maguire.
MASON, Charles, 50.
MATHEHS, Ruby, 18. Daughter of Albert Mathers.
MEAD, Eliza, 67. Wife of Charles Victor Mead.
MEAD, Florence Elizabeth, 35. Daughter of Ellen Garner; wife of George Mead.
MEAD, George Jnr., 10. Son of George and Florence Elizabeth Mead.
MEAD, George Snr.,38. Husband of Florence Elizabeth Mead.
MEAD, Kenneth, 12. Son of George and Florence Elizabeth Mead.
MEAD, Maureen, 4. Daughter of George and Florence Elizabeth Mead.
MORRIS, Derek,6. Son of Florence Maud Morris.
MORRIS, Florence Maud, 30. Daughter of George Morris.
MYERS, Jeffrey,6. Son of lsaac Myers and $ophie Myers.
MYERS, Sophie, 41. Wife of lsaac Myers.
NEVILLE, Alfred, 45.
NEWMAN, Doris, 9. Daughter of Louisa E. Newman and George John Newman.
NEWMAN, George John, 45. Husband of Louisa E. Newman.
NEWTON, Sarah Ann, 28. Daughter of Sarah Taylor and the late Henry Taylor; wife of
James David Newton.
NIXON, William Henry, 14. Son of Jane Nixon.
PAPWORTH, Rosina,27. Daughter of G. and S. Wheeler; wife of Henry Papworth.
PATTERSON, Mary, 44. Wife of James Robert Patterson.
PERRYMENI lris May, 17. Daughter of Alfred John and Caroline Florence
Perryment.
POOLE, Sarah Amelia Elizabeth, 54. Wife of Charles Alfred Poole.
PRICE, Rose Elizabeth, 27.
PUSEY, Emily, 48. Daughter of William and Catherine Sears; wife of Harry Pusey.
PUSEY, Harry, 50. Son of Henry and Eleanor Mary Pusey; husband of Emily Pusey.
QUORN, Emily Elizabeth, 43. Wife of John Edward Quorn.
QUORN, Gwendoline, 5. Daughter of John Edward Quorn and Emily Elizabeth
Quorn.
QUORN, William Frederick, 14. Son of John Edward Quorn and Emily Elizabeth
Quorn.
RAULINAITIS, Joseph, 32. Husband of Anna Raulinaitis.
REDWIN, Eileen Margaret, 7.
RELF, Hose Lilian Jnr., 13. Daughter of Reuben Henry Relf and Rose Lilian Relf.
RELF, Rose Lilian Snr., 41. Daughter of Maria Hines; wife of Reuben Henry Relf.
REYNOLDS, George Francis, 72.
RIDDELL, Stella Annie Violet, 13. Daughter of Violet Matilda Harriett Riddell and the
late William Seraphos Riddell.
RIDGWAY, Ellen, 28. Wife of Spr. G. Ridgway, R.E.
ROCHE, Edmund, 42. Husband of Rhoda Hoche.
ROCHE, Edward, 8. Son of Edmund and Rhoda Roche.
ROCHE, Joan Mary, 9. Daughter of Edmund and Rhoda Roche.
ROCHE, Rhoda, 40. Wife of Edmund Roche.
SCEATS, Lilian Doris, 15. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Sceats.
SEABROOK, Barry James, 2y 9m. Son of Mr and Mrs Seabrook.
SEABROOK, Sarah Florence, 62. Wife of James William Seabrook.
SEAR, William Herbert,50. Husband of Nellie Florence Sear.
SHARP, lrene Susan, 16months. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Sharp.
SHARB Kenneth Edward, 5. Son of Mr and Mrs Sharp.
SHEPHERD, Arthur Theodore, 42.
SINNOCK, Lydia Elizabeth,62. Wile of George Sinnock.
SMITH, DorothyAnn, 12. Daughter of Cyril Edward and Gertrude May Smith.
SPEIGHT, Edith Margaret, 47.Wite of Arthur Speight.
SPleER, Anthony Edwin, 4. Son of William and Eliza Elizabeth Spicer.
SPICER, Joan Pamela, 9. Daughter of William and Eliza Elizabeth Spicer.
STEVENS, Mary Ann Elizabeth, 55.
STRETCH, Rose, 39. Wife of William Stretch.
STRETCH, William Jnr., 9. Son of William and Rose Stretch.
STRETCH, William Snr., 49. Husband ot Rose $tretch.
TARBUCK’ George, 45. Son of Mrs P. Tarbuck; husband of Louisa Tarbuck.
TARBUCK, Louisa, 44.F.A.P. member. Daughter of Louisa Ward;wife of George
Tarbuck.
TAYLOR, James William, 12. Son of Henry and Maud Thylor.
TAYLOR, Sarah, 54.
THOMPSON, Kate, 53. Wile of William Richard Thompson.
THORPE, Barbara, 22 months. Daughter of Henry George Thorpe and Olive Thorpe.
THORPE, Marie, 11. Daughter of Henry George Thorpe and Olive Thorpe.
THORPE, Olive, 36. Wife of Henry George Thorpe.
TILBURY, Clara Selina, 49. Wife of Sydney Arthur Tilbury.
TRAYLING, lrene Lilian, 20. Daughter ol James and Mary Ann Marshall; wife of Gnr.
Alfred Arthur Trayling.
TRICE, lsabella Rose, 39.
TROTTER, Lilian Maud, 36. Wife of George Henry Trotter.
TROTTER, Vera Lilian, 7. Daughter of George Henry Trotter and Lilian Maud Trotter.
VANNER, Florence Eliza,49. Wife of John Vanner.
VANN, Maud, 23. Fire Guard. Daughter of G. and Louisa Branch; wife of James
William Vann.
WARRINGTON, Doris Beatrice, 16. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Warrington.
WELCH, James, 52. Husband of Alice Welch.
WHITEHEAD, James Henry, 69. Son of the late Charles and Mary Whitehead.
WILSON, Edna Rosina, 15. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Rosina H. Wilson.
WOOD, Alfred tfi/illiam, 63. Husband of Rose Lucy Wood.
WOOLNOUGH, Elsie Hilda, 37. Wife of Albert Charles Woolnough.
WOOLNOUGH, Olive Elsie, 12. Daughter of Albert Charles Woolnough and Elsie
Hilda Woolnough.
YEWMAN, John Robert Charles, l4months. Son of Alfred and Emily Yewman.

Log Entry 3
Architect’s Vision of the Memorial Site
Memorial to Bethnal Green Disaster – March 3 1945
Ananda Breed
9 February 2014

————
214/2015 ARCHITECT’S VISION

A RC HIT ECT ‘ S V ISIO N

architect's vision
One day in May 2006 when trai nee archi tect Harry Paticas wen t dmvn the steps into Bethnal Green tube station on his way to work , he happened to see ov erhead the memori al plaq ue to the v ictims of the Bethnal Green tube shelter disaster. It struck him as extraordi nary that 173 people had died i n that space on the steps. He decided to find out more: speaking to nei ghbou rs, who gav e hi m a range of different stories, and reading various reports. About a week later, going down the steps, the design for a
memmial struck him in an instan t: he could take a cast of the space where everybody died, tum i t upside down and lif t i t up abov e the stair in order to make a relationshi p bet,:veen the space w here the people had died and the memorial directly abov e.
A rare element would be tha t the memori al was actually where the disaster had happened . He sent his design to the l ocal F:.ast London Advertiser ,vith a short text. It was published with a headl ine something like ‘Local architect proposes Stairway to Heaven memorial ‘ . This was how the •Stairway to Heaven ‘ name for the memorial originated. \Vhen he Jater asked the newspaper if they had had any response they faxed him a barel y legible hand written letter. Harry managed to make out the name of Alf Nforris and his phone number. A week later Harry visited hi m at home in Hornchurch. When Alf opened h is front door he said , with tears i n his ev.., es: ‘I’ve wai ted 50 v.., ears for someone l ike you to come along.’ Alf loved the design, and he and Harry arranged a publi c meeti ng in St John’ s Church hall at which Harry tol d Alf’s story of the disaster which reduced half the audience of about 250 to tears. This must have been one of the first times that a publ ic mourni ng for the disaster had been allowed to happen.

Everyone seemed to agree that there should be a memorial. Harry estimated the cost at about £500,000- far less than man y other recent memorials. Denise Jones, Leader of the Council. announced from the back of the meeting that the Counci l would support the projec t. This \Vas a fantastic moment for everybody presen t. Af ter that, there has been lots of obstacles for the commi ttee, bu t over the eight years there has been ti me to listen to w hat the memorial charity vvants, adapt and improve the design after v isiting and learni ng from other memorial s, some of whi ch are some\vhat intimidati ng and ‘frontal ‘; so i t was decided that allowing the public to circulate around the sculpture vvould afford a richer experi ence, and bring people closer to the story.
Despite getting plan ni ng perm1 ss10n, London Underground refused to allow a memori al bu ilt directl y over the steps: they ,vere vvorried about health and safety . and a negati v e psychologi cal impact. The solution was to keep the same dimensions but to shift i t about three and a half metres to the side. Representing all those who died they also decided to cut 173 small l ight cones into the roof , angled towards south , to let spots of sun through onto the insi de of t.he cavity. At one end they woul d be dispersed , at the other more closely packed, giving a hi nt of the disaster. The memorial stairway would now be v isi ble from all parts of the road junction and make quite an impact.

It was decided that hav ing the stairway in bronze w ould be too expensive, and too heavy without a supporting frame, which would spoil the look of the inside. Wood might be suitabl e, and a company called Ti n Met had found a source of teak on the bed of the Irish Sea. A ship wi th a cargo of teak sailing from Burma to Li verpool Docks in 1917 had been torpedoed . The teak baulks had been salv aged from the sea. Not only \Vas this a connecti on to the war, but the wood was very du rable. The names of all those who died woul d be carved into the outside of the teak stairway . The bench already i n pl ace next to the memorial pl inths was of solid teak. Though this is the only part u sing the sahaged teak over the years, the rest has been bought up by others. A new shipment has had to be ordered from Burma. The pl i nth of pre-cast concrete already in place w as ideal for laying w reaths there were even two projecti ng discs onto which they could be laid; and two recesses were for laying bu nches of flmvers. On v isi ting the Cenotaph the commi ttee had noti ced the l ack of places for laying such off erings. Harry was v ery keen on sustainable design and , for the dark paving needed , they used Scottish w hi nstone rather than a foreign source. \Vith guidance from a skateboarder, steel studs w ere placed i n the ground by the plinth to deter skateboardi ng. Digging the foundations for the memorial had been a challenge, what ,vi th the complex of underground service pipes and cables. London Transport we had been very supporti v e.

memorial site
Texts on memorial s could be dry and alienating; it was decided to put personal testi monials on the pl i n th , and that the ages of the dead should be given as well as their names. At the annual memorial serv ice Harry sometimes has to read out some of thei r names. In a w ay he feels like he knows them and somehow feels their grati tude. He said a man
empl oyed in the ticket hall of the station had once seen the ghost of a boy •wearing shorts wal king through a \Vall , and he reall y believ es him. Li ving nearby Harry often passes the memori al. clears away any l i tter, sands off the (very rare) graffiti , and is always delighted if anyone is looking at the memorial or si tti ng on the bench . The memori al has already raised awareness hugely . For Harry this has been largel y a labour of lov e: what drove him to create was the wi ll to make things happen, and he feels. and hopes, that the memorial ,vill surely be completed

PROGRESS SO FAR

The Stairway to Heaven Memorial Trust’s aim is to finish the memorial, situated next to the entrance of the tube station in Bethnal Green, dedicated to the memory of the 173 people of the community who lost their lives that day in March 1943, as well as to the survivors, many of whom lost friends and family in the disaster. In addition, the memorial will remember the Emergency Services, the firemen, policeman, ambulance, wardens, clergy and hospital staff who helped the injured. The charity is currently raising the funds required to complete the memorial which, it is hoped, will be unveiled at a ceremony as soon as possible.
If you wish to support us, please DONATE

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Politics of Memory and Performance Portfolio Term 1

Coursework/Exams Certificate

Reasonable adjustments relating to

Specific Learning Difficulties

(e.g. Dyslexia, Dyspraxia)

Student I.D. Number:     U1323625                                            Date: 15/10/2013

The above student is registered with our Service as having a Specific Learning Difficulty (SpLD). SpLDs are neurological disorders and are recognized disabilities that adversely affect a student’s academic performance in some, or all, of the following key areas:

  • reading accuracy (misreading texts, exam questions, instructions etc.)
  • reading comprehension (particularly at speed)
  • proofreading (even when work is spell-checked)
  • spelling / use of capital letters
  • grammar / punctuation
  • organisation of written ideas (sequencing ideas, word order / word omission, sentence structure, paragraphing)
  • handwriting speed and legibility
  • concentration
  • problems with short-term memory
  • difficulties pronouncing, sequencing or finding words when speaking (may affect oral exams / presentations)

Dyspraxic students may also display:

  • physical co-ordination difficulties
  • problems with spatial awareness

Tutors are asked to make reasonable adjustments when marking coursework and to focus on content and understanding of the subject wherever possible. This does not apply to competence standards.

Coursework:

With adjustments in place a student is expected to meet the course competencies. This document asks that tutors take account of minor errors that, despite the student’s best efforts, may have been overlooked during the proofreading process.

 

Examinations and tests:

Errors may become more severe in test situations and towards the end of a piece of writing, particularly under time pressure.

This certificate is for the sole use of the student identified above. Any unauthorised use will result in disciplinary action up to and including exclusion.

Any queries to: ddac@uel.ac.uk

Log Entry 1

World War Two performance

Class notes from 8 December 2014

Ananda Breed

Concepts of memory and mind

Group 1- made a presentation on their tattoos and scars from the past as if we were the audience in a museum. This was based on the concepts on memory and the mind.

Concepts to use in term 2. Creating a performance that is based on archives.

Today we will be looking at information from the Bethnal green memorial disaster. We will also look at articles from interviews from the survivors of the disaster in forms of photos, books, newspapers, journals and research materials. In your research groups you will use the material that I give you to make a 5 min presentation.

Think through the theoretical material. Next term you will have a whole term to respond to an archive.

The groups did their presentations using different articles.

As part of the learning we were asked to create a performance within a live testimony museum. I came up with the idea within my group to do World War Two. The following photos and documents are part of what we used as props when we did the show.

20141106_000149 20141105_235858 20141105_235934 20141106_000032 20141106_000232 20141106_00032520141105_235808

Group Members at rehearsal

20141030_153624 20141030_153646 ContactPhoto-IMG_20141030_164436

Log Entry 2

Critical reflection on theatre visit and 5 associated photographs

Play: Dusk

Date: 4 October

On Saturday October 4th 2014 at 11:30am, myself and my two children age 9 and 10 there names were Paris and Lee arrived at the theatre in Stratford Circus, we arrived early so we sat at a table and waited.

At 11:30am the door was opened by a lady standing in front of the door, we got directed in by the Asia to go and stand next to the wall. The atmuastfear was misty then everybody stood around waiting, my most clever daughter Paris notested there was tails hanging from the ceiling!

The actor introduced himself as an It and explained that him and the other It’s lived in a forest. The actor was expressing the story of the It family, suddenly the tails that Paris saw hanging from the ceiling was being lowered by a rope. There was tails for adults, kids and toddles also baby’s there was no more kids tails so Paris got an adult tail she felt and stroked the tail it was soft and the size of the tail was really big, she liked it and wanted to keep it. Paris thought she could and she thought they were giving them out and letting you keep them but then I explained that she couldn’t, she wasn’t actually upset she just wanted to see the show and participate in it.

When I asked Lee if he was going to get a tail he said no because he thought he was too old to take part I didn’t think so the adults took tails so why can’t he? In addition to that they were older than him so I didn’t think he was too old are you kidding me? So he did not take a tail.

When the other people received their tails they put them on and helped their little ones to put them on Paris thought it was fun having a tail on because Paris like well-loved fluffy soft things like teddy bears and the tails were fluffy (well I think fluffy) and soft but she didn’t really like the colour the colour was brownish and she didn’t really like that.

Then everyone sat down within the setup of the stage, the actor was spinning howling like a wolf! The projector was used within the theatre the film showed a story of an It like the actor himself. You needed a green mark on your forehead to show that you lived in the forest with the It family so we got green face paint on out forehead Paris got it on her forehead and her nose. Just then next to the screen coming from the projector was a big glowing ball that changed colours! It was amazing but strange it was strange because the glowing ball was shown in the film and the It got lost but he followed the ball it was very strange but good so we can have a closer look at the ball the one next to the projector.

A little bit later when the It was still lost he found the forest! But he saw something dreadful a machine was tearing the forest apart! It was total torture! BUT WAIT A SECOND he found the same red door that was in the theatre! He peered once through the red door but it was like a totally different world…… but when he looked again he found his family after that he was walking through the red door in the theatre!!!!! In celebration of his arrival the adults, kids and toddles/baby’s danced (well jumped and span) and howled with joy!

A question for Paris “What did you think of the show Dusk?”

“ I HATE the name because it doesn’t match any bit any bit of the film or the acting! Well the only thing I liked about the show was the……

TAILS!!!!!!!!! Paris replied.

The following 5 photographs were taken before, during and after the theatre visit. They were chosen as evidence of the theatre visit and that we took part in the interactive elements of the performance, including having our faces painted and wearing tails.

20141004_11093620141004_123158 20141004_123145 20141004_123138 20141004_123211

Log Entry 3

Critical reflections on theatre visits

Theatre Event: Afro Vibes

Website: http://www.afrovibesuk.com/

Date: 13 to 18 October

This entry and the next one are in relation to the Afro Vibes Theatre Festival. I went to two different plays in the festival, Rhetorical and Rainbow Scars.

Play: Rhetorical

Date: 16 October

+             When I entered the theatre schoolchildren class was in the audience sitting in the front seats.

  • Nelson Mandela president of South Africa.

+     Videos show of dedication to Nelson Mandela, when the race is one it would succeed in our own.

+     Act to come out dancing- stage set up books are on the floor and at actor is looking at the books, speaking in his own language.

  • Very funny- big dodder – story telling, poetic- academic disclosure- doing- thinking- music used- after the actor picks up the books with excellent knowledge of what all the books are.
  • Actress on stage talking about Mandela intentions- talking about Mandela’s, knees- regimes- white main trees- people- moving peacefully.

+     Spotlight on actor giving spectacular speech- other actor enters both fighting for the microphone.

+         Speech- background people marching. Then come on stage march in with revrum – showing protection on back of stream– singing BV it should be rich, rich, rich in rehearsals—

+           actors talking- about new South Africa- actors on my talking about the people of Africa- stories- poverty – shame.

+           Consideration of each actor.

+             Actors carrying- box- tips- house- on back- fire- no electricity- house made out of iron- house burnt down- woman washing clothes.

  • Homelessness- lost every think- for the second time- stressed out- doesn’t want poverties show- struggle- life.

+       Vote for change. One actor- in spotlight other in background.

+       Eight children from different men and don’t get support from government and sister children. Her sister died- one Bros Child mental illness- brother- grandmother- 23 moth to feed and only one pension- and child great teenager problematic.

+         Going through names in native tongue- talking about poverty at the blink- gods forgot- being condemned for caring for baby

  • showed video- Hitler world war two- showed a Abraham Lincoln- I had a dream that whites and blacks can socialise.

+         Winston Churchill all World War II Prime Minister- politics- country- two nations- politicise

+         made movement funny- free actors are running- guns- shooting- using dancing- with guns in hand- dancing- fun.

+           Re-force- who- more- powerful use music.

+         Beating women – pregnant-taking them away- drugs all about money -many of us-work-gangs-terror rise-24 seven -every thousand crimes each one crime. There are only 77 convictions.

+   Cat like wild tiger-jalwa is a car— laugh   -pointing the gun to the audience gun delay time made it very funny.

+ Two actors speaking over one another’s dialogue-music used- my baby don’t care-dancing- flirting- fun- funny.

+             Actor Doctor very sincere- but very funny- use miming- accompanied by sad music.

+             From rags to riches got job- dance workmen with River McCall sound.

+               Woman walks on stage slender dance tango with actor music used Roxsam – very funny audience loved it.

+   Actor workmen were seduced by actress that was dancing actor workmen went home to wife. He danced with his wife.

+ Act to claim workmen was sick- used red scar as a symbol of blood- s sickness – Aids – message scafe represented sickness- Dr examined workmen- Dr use sign of the cross- no hope- died.

+         Death- angel of death- carried workmen’s body off- Dr- dispenser of death= HIV AIDS- giving messages to get rid of- terrace tests- aids found- HIV-positive- must be shipped to the death camp- exterminated- mad Dr

+       war- fighting- Parliament politics- play fighting, very funny.

  • Sure of two actors ending scene washing music- are they Maria in the background.

+     Two women actors speaking over each other protest on projections.

+         Actors enter singing and dancing. One actor telling the story and the other one dancing, making it very funny- singing just brings my machine gun.

  • Actors use different scarfs and hats to resemble different characters- tribes feeling what they do traumatic experience- music

+       Questions and answers

Feeling human- associated a lot in similar allegations they counted the internal that brought it example balm president because of money situations.

+       Books scattered around- class highlighted some of the things education within urban cultures, no identification- finds it.

+       Look like it mainly covered urban a lot was left out of the play format. Full magically on speeches many different adaptions with in the play, depending on where it was performed.

+     By tape the consumption of it was funny- linked the whole thing together- find a way to keep it fresh.

+       Looks for research on character and use on different abstracts

+       originated from the piece. This had been performed in South Africa, but what different is it bred Brinley one’s again worked very much, but don’t like that.

+           Answer two questions from director performed shows in Africa first did it in market theatre, John Runge barge they loved all the ways and they understood more of the and stereotypes when it went to France. They didn’t know who the characters was and it was a gamble to put on the performance as the risk was to show new audiences as they had no experience of African culture and the characters which was played with in this theatre piece.

Log Entry 4

Critical reflections on theatre visits

Theatre Event: Afro Vibes

Website: http://www.afrovibesuk.com/

Date: 13 to 18 October

Play: Rainbow Scars

Date: 17 October

+Stage set- sofa table 1 chair with actors standing on it, holding a pose changing arm movement.

+   African culture-mother and daughter-light changes goes on to one actor the other actor talking to a teacher-very good dialogue like another person is there.

+   Funny mum and daughter online looking at men rainbow Nations.

+   Other actors standing on chair doing arm movements.

+     Mother black children adoption-support group daughter is black and mother is white rainbow stories

+   talking to judge about bowel to get out.

+     Segregation passport control raises the issue about mother and daughter actress comments stick it up your fat ass -very funny as it came from a white middle-class actres

+   actress using stripping sounds good drama emphasis.

+     Main actor very good- extremely clear cultures use their blackness when applying for university.

+     Corruption paid someone paid cops money.

+     Actors on witness stand, giving character reference for husband.

+       Class money –identity- division- between- mum upper-class.

+         Some humorous moments backing house- crimes- 80%.

+           Spoke in native tongue.

+           Different models beliefs because of different culture backgrounds.

+           Good emotional content in right places.

+         Giving story of what happened using hand with movement through voice and movement together very effective.

+         Dance movement to express anger through actors.

+           South Africa works of the rich and not for the poor.

+           Very dominant- now actor got shot and killed tragically ended life goes on in rainbows stories

Below are two photos of the theatre progamme for the Afro Vibes Festival.

20141111_033533 20141111_033518

Log Entry 5

Critical reflection on theatre visit

Play: Mandela

Date: 17 October

  • They used blackboards on the stage against a circular chairs around the edge of the stage- on the boards were written- the future-marries-politics- school- passions- there was too blank boards what was the blank balls for I was thinking?

+       The stage setting- very interesting the setting of the stage very basic, but the chairs were set up around the back and at the sides of the stage and at the back there was a drum.

+       The youth theatre was introduced – the opening scene was a group of two different young actors and actresses. There was a set of boys and a set of girls. The Girls behaviour and the way they moved were like a boy, the gills at attitude of the boys and the boy’s behaviour was like the girls so they swapped roles.

  • The young actors made contact eye contact with the audience the boys were encouraging one of the boys actors to to communicate with the gale actor and the girls were encouraging one of the gills actors to communicate one of the boys.

+           The all the actors were females there were eight actresses on stage. They were singing, but also writing on the black couple’s text talking and giving directions of a clue they are within the planning of the story. They had a map on the floor which represented different continents different parts of the country.

+     These were the different parts of the country is named 1-graaffrenet-2 matatleie. 3 mhatha.     4 East Cape . 5 grahams town. 6 . Port Elizabeth . 7 East London.

  • Giving stories of different things linking what they are and talking about parent’s dad’s etc.
  • sitting on chairs all the actors focuses on one act two at the time they were facing the front.

+           Story of parents and happenings- stick patient- despair- sadness- eight then a workshops- within the performance testimonies of life stories- reality contents- song- reality songs the whole’s apart must come down to Africa will be saved- singing in African language.

+           Two actresses- political- medical stories of HIV-positive with in the emotional content with in the story.

+         On the back of the chairs, said- if you could go back in time- emotional content good way to draw the audience attention.

+             Acting with rap- using the chairs as a class school set up stories with song about having another chance and the group of actresses was singing together unitedly

+           Religions content opposing about religion, and religious groups- one actress was being opposed with conflict.

+             Humour part funny- born again Christian – with opposing views- using for S when changing sentimental and sad- testimonies- brother died.

+             It buying the audience into the performance with the emotional content element of very strong focus on the storytellers

+       Singing with a motion or content links to testimonies and strong united team work.

+         Politics within Africa- joking about politicians.

+         Change in South Africa government- no libraries.

+         Use of props changing chairs using space within the song they sang- men, their act like boys joke 9 mm shouts mammal’s name.

+             Changed frame steel frame- using drum playing sports.

+   The performance of HIV-positive- they use dance, grammar and house- beaver boy reggae -verge

+       Song Africa cultural can care with dance—

+         -future– all individuals same what they wanted to be       .

+         Singing on earth when you have a new child-song I am we are closer-good way of using singing and real testimonies.

This show showed reduces of song and real live testimonies showed stories of South African women giving their testimonies through poetry, song and acting

Log entry 6

Critical Reflection on Class Notes and Readings

6 October 2014

The generation of postmemory sent to Ben

The Generation

Abstract Postmemory shows relationship between the second Generationboften experiencing dramatic events that focuses on passed memories of the holoacaust which direct powerful dramatic experience the safe keeping of the holoacaust is passed onto us and this transferred knowledge is transmuted into history.

The postgeneration

The guardianship of the holoacaust received transferable knowledge engaging into history. Sense of living connection have some personal urgency within the guardianship of dramatic passed Susan Sontag (2003) stronly describe s the pain of others? What are victims can memory’s of gencide transform into action resistance? Raul Hibrg (1985) going through documents book thirteen one hundred paged book skilled astoricons learn to tell different history’s, destruction of the Jews in Embodies by poetry and nartiue Dlana Taylor (2003) repertoire of embodied knowledge abstnt and archives holocaust work within the second generation war after second hand smoke war story five years silence loosing the dead.

Poetics today

Memory that is transmitted not within these living events post or after qualifieing agectives and autobiograpial and second generation writers trouble connecting within feminism issues . Postmemory connected with past happenings that continue to work within the present, why does transmission raise a question within the memory structure of the holoacaust? To capture the past history of the holoacaust they used photographic images the photos medlation and the history of the holoacaust is down to us.

Transmission events of unimaginable memory studies interdisciplinary and postdisciplay within the holoacaust istorical frame and then tranumaic transfers postmery world war memories broad cuitural, format of living memories into archive in the regaurd to the children of the hollycaust process by a history that they have never lived or experienced,the memories not memories war time of experience’s and flashing of imagery.

Breaking in transmission recreates rememberance reconnect family cultural unit,in body form memory which then transcribe three to four generations acroos the eight to one hundred years group memory family transmission in body’s experience to the next generation.

Information is not esecifically account in regaurd to introduce by collective historical trauma by war under the nazis culture archive and the archive with tramic interrution lost it direct link to the past , but forget community society desribe by national memory as apposes and medlate by photographer.

Why the family?

Raped in silence and the language of the family nighmares and idioms signs of illness long term affects os living close proxlmity to pain and depression and survive the historical trauma and used pubic images to a dopte family albums family languages reembody a cuitural/archival .

Image from first man imagine further experience with in Auschwittz reference as a wider cirualted know as famillal gaze internal imagery is powerful.

Child of survive distinctiveness of specifically famillal second generation identity structure of famtay and progectom a share archive story, famillal as afflinte Postmemory.

New locations trauma with inspace of the family personalised was over wellmin because of the separation with in memory calutal/archive memory was much more then oual or writen anarative photo images showed survivor’s and lost past world, which opened windows to pass materialzing the relation to it therefor,the inscription of narrative or moral emotions of empathy.

Would like to use these two main paragraphs

I imagined seeing her walking down the street in a summer dress and light weight gabardine coat,said Austerlitz: among the group of ghetto residents out of a stoll,she alone seemed to make staight at me, coming closer with every step,unlast I thought I could sense her steping out of of the frame and passing over to me.

In the audience at a consert,set a little way back and close to the upper edge of the frame,the face of a young woman appears, bearly emerging from the back of the shadows around it… she looks, so I tell my self as I watched,just a I imagined the singr Agáta from my faint memories and the few other clues to her appearance that I have now,and I gaze and gaze againat the face witch seem to me both strange and familiar, said Austerlitz.

Nazi death machine

The lies about the Auschwiz numbers that when though the nazi death machine the exisax number is unknown and throught photos objects e.g necklace that someone that owned photo images of the necklace which has been recognised by a family member within the next generation from family pictures

Log entry 7

Reflection on Class Activity

Archives and Ontology of Performance

6 September 2014

Archives & Ontology of performance

Cecilia Sosa

Notes:

Reading is vital because it helps one to familiarise themselves with vocabulary. It also enables the one to be more aware of their own work both on stage and off stage hence being more reflective of own practice.

  • Consider practical vs theoretical side.
  • Ask yourself what’s being portrayed, why the writing? Etc.

Performance and disappearance: The art of the present/always at the vanishing point.

Article 1: Matthew Reason’s ‘Archive or Memory?’

Brief summary of Group 1’s presentation – New type of archive i.e. written and recorded. There is a connection between them and how you can relate to it. Disappearance of the performers’ work for instance remembering their performance.

Question to ponder: What happens in the moment of live theatre?

‘Theatre not the art of the present.’

Reviews might not necessarily depict the objective opinions but a partial review of events.

Group 2 – physical objects and memories. Live performances can be watched, may be about the experience of it. Reason combines the two because he’s on neither side of the argument. Points out both memory and archives are selective by existence e.g. ticket staff, programmer etc. He presents both pros and cons and decides that neither is superior. Can you get the same/full experience again? Live performance originality can’t be replicated?

Artists and live performance: Barba considers theatre to be the art of the present. Preserving their performance’s i.e artists but scholars were. Desiring to relive the experience.

Note: Legacy is very vital for every artist and that all should endeavour to preserve it.

–              Point raised on archives and bodies by a student: Bodies can become the archive. For example ballet performances might always replicate each other.

The objectivity of the archive – Would it be parallel to memory? A source of shared or collected memory? Is there a memory of the audience? Keeping the memory of the audience alive.

It is crucial to consider both memory and performance in relation to archive. The idea that we are witnessing the power of transformation, the body to body transmission.

  • Re-creating the story when we present articles we have read or experiences we have lived. However, it is almost impossible to replicate the experience.

New performance therefore, involves the memory of the previous performance. Where history and past goes into the future, changing perspective of someone’s memory

  • What value would you attach to archive?
  • Archive is as important as someone that wants to view it.

Rebecca Schneider: She supposes that performance remains.

THE VALUE OF ARCHIVES

‘Archives can be sold/bought for a price yet memory can’t.’

There appears to be more development and creativity within memory and archives

Remark: Who makes the choice to include a particular part of an archive? Start to lose small details of performance and if even just little bits are lost, one might never actually get to grasp the whole detail of the performance.

Archive needed to develop or change???

Are we all allowed to create archive or is it just for a few people??

Performance provides us with perspective into worlds.

‘Logic of the archive’ – performance challenges the logic of the archives.

Performance as memory – Performance is more about the re-emergence of something. Creating something new out of the articles for example. The body as collective memory or counter memory, embodied acts and performance.

Carolina Golder presentation: She said; that it’s “easier to organise demonstrations in Buenos Aires than in London.”

Log entry 8

Reflection on Class Activity and Reading

Archives and Memory

6 October 2014

Archive or memory? Of live performance prècis

The positive value of thearter within a live performance and what trainsience and is offen associated with immediate expression to show through trainsience by demonstrating within archive theory and leaves uncertainty within the archive and a value on changing within the thearters livelyness.

Eugennio Barba suggest in a1992 art Etrmatle thet thearter is in the art of the present and George Balanchine for example describes a man who did not give a dame about the past and cared less about the future.

The longing to record the performance is powerful within the contradictory of the matter running through the arts and as connected part of the archive and everything that has any connection with the performance can belong in a archive.

The writer is expressing that the archive was invented to show the historical side of the past and to hold the memory so not forgotten, but there is much contirqeys aspects within the perfomance and the archive proclaims change how within the live performance opens up and changes the dimension within the live performance therefore the archive are both contradictory within archive as the live thearter passes through the moment and the outcome brings change therefore the writer’s main point of the artical is because of the archive and the assistant memory to pass history and because the development through the archive this brings change development within live performance.

Log entry 9

Reflection on Class Notes and Activity

Trauma and Performance

20 October 2014

Going the distance: trauma, social rupture, and the work of repair

By Ellen w. Kaplan

It is imperative to understand communication experience distance this has a connection to the character that the actor is playing they do this by living inside the story and stepping outside of one self.

Therefore this undermines peoples viewpoints and makes a vehicle and social change through thought using stories that heeled people and helped them grow having a feeling of living in someone else’s skin through the character of one self in regard to personal stories and this creates and empathy and distance because of living inside the story because you step out of one self.

When engage this engagement is needed as this gives control over traumatic memory’s and for insight you experience a reaction which gain control over traumatic memory’s which in return rewrites the plot and at the same time honours other positions without disorient which gives good tools to use within engagement and growth but there is a need for critical distance between the actor.

Witness testimony from truth and commission hearings, what does it mean to retell a story? What does it say? What right does an actor have to retell the story? What is the distance part? Also what weight does live experience have? Does it have one type of knowledge?

When doing workshops rumour or soldiers and kidnapping also sadly been killed and the identify to soldiers that become deabt and productive distance was not easy to achieve, during workshops teenagers started to talk and communicated to each other and shared fears and hopes and talking about this war but they were energized by the work it helped break the epic line because before there was no conversation when the teenagers were on the break from the workshop within the workshop the stories expressed different powers for example group identity they did this by using trust exercises and they used slow and soft ones using laughter to cover discomfort.

Within the different groups they identified age, gender, disability, religion, power also power identity’s was exploited horizontal shared power which created control but this is not easy as what I think when I see you or what is true about me and what message have I gave?

Name calling because of your religion or ethnicity can say you may have power or no power stereo typing and power is used as well as practical realization and imagined voice compassionate listening through expressing own stories within role reversal you are commented to hear uncensored story, there two groups one of which are Jewish and the other group is Arab boys.

Within the workshop the two groups of boys worked in pairs one of the boys said from one group said “I admire you.” and the other group replied “I will change something about myself.” “Without listening to the enemy I could not make informed decisions”, when the scripted seen there is no passion or power involved within the characteristic Arab’s and Jews teenagers created together original plays and performed it in public schools when using distance it helps the actor remember what was left out for example whether the character was supposed be showing humour through there acting.

Log entry 10

Reflection on Class Notes and Activity

Feedback on experiences of past events and traumatic stories

20 October 2014

Lecturer: Cecilia

Warm-up activity with Ananda.

–              Deep breathe in, out, down……

Feedback on the experience from Victorian coliseum.

To find out to which extent are the objects political.

Whenever we are in any exhibition, what we are trying to depict is what the story is telling us and how can relate it to the past? Is there any connection, anything to learn?

The session:

Argentina’s post-dictatorship context:

Finding their lost relatives. A lady found her grandson.

Biological link to the way of identifying themselves. Quite surreal yet the ‘babies’ are now much older.

Guardians of the national mourning. Trauma beyond bloodlines

Judie Dench’s film.

Group 1 presentation on Escraches:

Mobilising trauma. Bringing together their individual traumas.

Issue of justice. Give it to themselves through escraches to bring their trauma to those that brought it to them.

Proponent of change – about what happens afterwards rather than prior to.

Neighbour could be any well-wisher and this could be important to help further their agenda. Being seen as actors, they use this platform to show the grief for family members.

Identity being challenged – could have been the dictatorship vs the current change.

Silence condones behaviour or allows complacency. They killed in the past because they thought the people would be silent in the future. Everyone involved gets their identity challenged.

Group 2:

Engages with past memory vs post-memory. Seeks to uncover shame and trauma to be confronted. Movement rooted in the present and those meanings can be used to confront these issues.

Forced reconciliation.

Trauma theory through his case study – transmission of memory drawing from our own experience (Diego Benegas 2014).

  1. Taylor

She discusses that it has to be wide spread otherwise without people’s involvement, it wouldn’t work to expectation. Researching about the feeling of involvement. She’s basically researching on her own experience. The emotions that were spread being contagious, body to body transmission of embodied, was surreal to her.

A form of political empowerment. The big question to ponder is how those who haven’t faced violence can comprehend it. Through escraches, it is assumed that the traumatic experience can be passed on to those who didn’t participate. Cultural agency, the power to understand the how power is being transmitted.

Political demonstrations closes trauma because it offers a platform for formal closure, repair, eliminating self-pity, legitimising the occurrence or the fact that such stuff happened. Uses case study and builds on it in a theoretical way. Performance and trauma always repeat itself.

Trauma brings one back to the painful event e.g. war, death of loved one. Both felt in the present ie performance and trauma.

Building a new theoretical framework to address the Argentinian case. Traumatic experience might be transmittable but is inseparable from the subject who suffers it.

Impossible claim (political claim) of the Argentinian mothers.

DNA of performance – related to a biological linkage between generations. Kinship relations of Argentinian families. Genetically, politically and performatively.

Scientific – is the archive i.e. the evidence of bones found providing closure to families of the deceased.

Mothers become living archives, evidence.

Grandmothers –

Children –

Design your own example of DNA of performance – develop a performative strategy of participation and identification with traumatic past that can ‘capture’ the spectator. Portrait the audience as inheritor of that traumatic past.

Stage your performance.

Log entry 11

Reflection on Class Notes and Activity

Trauma, Germany and Comparisons with London Riots

10 November 2014

Juridical Performance and Memory (week 7)

Notes

Lecturer : Dr Christina Papagiannouli

Email: c.papagiannouli@uel.ac.uk

  1. Hannah to lead yoga
  2. Performances and discussions
  3. Discuss readings
  1. Yoga warm-up

Breathe in, Lean back, breath in, right and left leg back, plank position, stretch out, left leg back, and plank position, breathe in right and left leg in slowly come up at the count of six.

Zipzapzop game played in a circle

  1. Performances and discussions

Act 1

Discussion

It was about Germany.

The dogs represent the pawns in the family.

We changed it to the theme of the London riots.

We wanted to make the dogs more human.

Feedback

One student liked the video playing in the background.   It was very interesting. The play was contrasted from Ubu to the London Riot in order to illustrate something that we are familiar with. It was good for the characters to have been moving around. However the central character could have moved about a bit more.

Questions from performers

  1. Did the riots’ theme work?
  2. Yes the use of animals was good

Others thought of Othello.

  1. Why did you pick the London Riots?
  2. London Riots is still relevant as the young people people where happy to go along with it. People acting like dogs and just doing it.
  3. Did you start with the text or physicality?
  4. We wanted dogs to go around and make the audience feel uncomfortable. We also wanted to use puppetry. We wanted you to lose all humanity and be more like dogs.

Opinions

Just breathe whilst you are acting. London Riots are close to you and you can talk about something that you know. What was unclear was the other two characters, why they were running around. Drug addicts would move towards an object but they may do so in a\ slow way.

Act 2

Discussion

Looked at the idea of Traumatisation. Ubu process behind making it. There were other ways of making it through the process of documentation. We were sympathising with the part of Ubu. We were playing the puppeteer as in the police officer. It was a true experience. I felt at ease to talk in the first person. There was a distance which I thought keeps us apart like the legislation. It is linked very well. You could sede the play as a child asking for something whilst the mum is talking to the brother. Also as in the courtroom.

It is theatre but it is honest. I liked the connection between drawing and colouring. Although Pat (Performer) was on the floor she held power by asking for more crayons. Drawing can be expressing and leaving the trouble behind.

Questions

  1. Where did you get the inspiration?
  2. Courtroom drawings as no pictures are allowed to be taken instead there are drawings.
  3. Why was the ending incomplete?
  4. We wanted it to feel unfinished.

Opinions

The contrast of the jury sitting and not standing. It was clear that there are power relationships but in contrast. You were very clear in how you used the readings. Pink and red colour signified the pain he felt. How the jury can press the answers out. It would have been nice if Pat (performer) kept drawing and didn’t stop.

Act 3

Discussion

We wanted to make it more honest. Instead of using puppets, we wanted to use humans. We wanted to use technology as it is an important part of probatum theatre. The backdrop was good as we could feel like we could walk on. I liked the lighting as we could see your heads properly.

Questions

  1. How do you feel about us using humans? A. The fragmentedness still gives relevance to you using humans.
  2. How do you feel if we had used Afrikaans language from South-Africa?
  3. I think another language would have worked strongly if one would be translating in English.
  4. Can any of you speak another language?
  5. One of us speaks German
  6. Do you think you should have used another language?
  7. Also you could have used a different language just to play with the idea of translation.

Opinions

The spacing of Actors could have been done better. I liked how you used humans and not puppets. We were not able to see the text clearly as all actors where in front of the projector. It was interesting that you started talking together but you did not end up talking together.

Act 4

We wanted to stick to the script abstract. We looked at being human. We looked at puppetry in terms of mimicking what was going on. Women tend to kill the trauma when they say that their husband is cheating. Women choose not to express their feelings in a relationship. The Government is symbolic of the man. The woman is symbolic of the public. The cast is all females yet the script is male dominated which made it interesting. It was a beautiful imagery to illustrate what would happen when Sasha (Performer) answered in. Keep your secrets means she’s defending herself.

Questions

  1. Did the gender matter in terms of identifying who was man and woman?
  2. At first we couldn’t tell, but later unconsciously it showed.
  3. How did you decide who was going to be which character?
  4. Whatever we could relate to the most made us choose our characters.

Opinions

It was really interesting about having two scenes at the same time. If the other is physical; the other can be less physical

End of today’s performances.

  1. Discuss readings

Sessions Questions Lecture notes

  • Picture of Pistorius

How might theatrical performances relate to theatrical Performances in terms of Pistorius’ case?

How the media was live streaming. The debates became a performance. Although real people may have been talking about the truth, they may have been acting. There is a difference in being at home or at a meeting place.

  • The (New) trial of Socrates

What Socrates said before he died in text. They tried to re-enact the facts that they had. It became a performance. Actual judges went to court to re-enact Socrates.

What do you think this is? A performance or reality? They asked the new jury to vote whether Socrates should be sentenced to death. This society is much different. If you get a case and put it in different countries and times it can be tried differently. If Pistorius was in a different country it would mean sterner punishment. The audience would not send Socrates to death.

Gacaca mean’s ‘ judgement on the grass.’ A clip of Gacaca is shown. On the grass, prisoners wear pink and are tried by the

Log entry 12

Reflection on Class Notes and Activity

Performance, Applied Drama and Memory

17 November 2014

Anka Performance artist

Talked about how she voted yesterday. She was in a huge que to vote. Last night it was victory and there was no revolution in Romania as was the expectation. 25 years ago there was the fall of the burning wall in Germany. In Romania there was an anti-communist revolution.

In her work Memory is driven by the concept of how the social and political dynamics affect the political dynamics. She did a lot of training in her BA in drama. She then worked in Applied Drama. She talked of the difficulty of being hired for life in Romania by the theatre company if you sought out a job. Also the aspect of the theatre is repertoire and you can’t act what you want to. She is developing participative and immersive theatre project.

Why did she start to work with Memory?

She took the history of her people very personal. The Romanians have been called the generfation with a key on their necks. My parents never told me their experience of the communist. It was illegal not to work. You were put into different prison like institutions if you were against the government. The orthodox religion was the legal religion at that time and any other religion was not allowed. They made the people move around the country so that they would have no friends and family. Also, that they would not form attachments or love and therefore no power.

When I was 12 years old, there was no electricity as the government was saving electricity. I remember my parents talking about two dictators and the shortage of food. The dictators were my parents and I did want to know about how they were making my family suffer. The dictators made a lot of people go into exile. In a way I think theatre of testimonies is important to voice our issues and our identity. I started talking about exile now I will talk about immigration. We do not want to stay in that country but we want our friends and family.

Practical

  1. The south is the place of your childhood
  2. The north is where you are now

We will travel from south to north. I would like you to think of your unpleasant or a difficult moment in your childhood. Walk around, if you are in north or south, you can imagine what it is about your childhood. Focus on your inner self in the south side. Remember the smell or your temperature at that time.

Now let us go to the North side.

What you are experiencing right now. What the present means for you.

Start to be aware of your thoughts and the relation of the people in your life. Consider that event that I asked you to memorize in the south. Also try to think why this event has changed in your life. Try not to cross again to the south at this moment. We will start to move from South to North. In the South you are in the past. In the North you are in the future.

You are doing the right thing. Try to focus and imprint in your body who you are today and who you were in the past. To exit lets be in the middle between south and north. How does it feel? Slowly try to come out of this state slowly.

How does it feel? Did you thin k about your bodies? Its interesting what memories you have.

Comments…

I did it in my mind whilst I was sitting. It was more like a journey.

Which was more depressing north or south?

How was your body?

How did you experience your body?

When was your body more present in the present or the past?

In your groups for 10 minutes talk about the event you were thinking of and talk about the event you would like to present in front of us.

I will now relate the story of one lady in Romania who worked on the seaside at a hotel. Her mother said do not talk to strangers, do not take money from anyone and do not tell anyone your secrets. The owner of the hotel thought the girl was taking money for the portraits that she had been painting of foreigners who visited the hotel.   The police came and interviewed her and found no prove of taking money other than making portraits of them for free. The British foreigners then made a protest in favor of the lady in Romania.

Dori Loub is someone who wrote extensively about the holocaust prisons about Jewish people. He went to America and he started his archive. It was about their experiences. It was also about memory and how things come out. This is how interviews can help us bring out memories.

What do you think ab out the truth?

Anka talks of a woman whom was accused of not seeing four chimneys burning by the police who said there was one chimney burning at the scene.

Dispeace – interviewers are members of the audience. However are they able gto claim the truth as the truth?

In my own project I’m trying to remember what is officicial culture of Romania. How do we get to choose what is the truth about this election?

In your groups decide how you chose your stories.

Comments…

  1. Things that did not make us vulnerable
  2. Strategy
  3. We felt related to the story

I talked to a lady I interviewed in Russia who was 94 years old.   She said “The things are so hard that I can’t talk about it.” Traumatic events are really hard to be voice. We still need to make an intellectual relation to it. For us in Eastern Europe we do not have a word for trauma.

Is it important where we are having this conversation today?

I feel context is very important. Labelling is very western but actually it is not very appropriate.

Trauma is in the context and can change many things. Only when I thought this is traumatic it became traumatic to me.   Most of the intellectuals were locked up in mental health institutions. Therefore Romanians are afraid of psychiatrists to make you forget what you wanted to say.

Now work in groups on the story in context. Think as theatre directors if you were to create it how would you show it to the audience?

Preparation for the audience. To look at your reading. What do I mean by preparation? By working with people who are not actors. Tonos and Shakner talked about what ritual does to us. For example we came from one space, from our homes. We are coming from a place we are then transformed. We are not what we have been but we are not yet what we will become.

The middle is what a religious ritual can transform us in awareness. Awareness between what I was and what I will become. The middle is what a religious ritual can transform us in an awareness. This is between what I was and what I will become. Communitas is what happens in an audience. They have started a transformation together and they have left afterwards. Turner says we have to put things in a sense of illuminate.

When people where coming to the performance they had to que in front of me. All were British or Romanian. When asked why are we staying in a que? Romanian s remembered about the B read que. The English people where asking the Romanians what was it about? It was a preparation corridor forf what they were going to see.

Think of how you are going to create a preparation corridor for your chosen context. Put us in a state where we can understand d and make sense of a story.

How was the process of creating this experience?

Has this been helpful for you as a creator to pull out things you never thought of?

Comment…

It was therapeutic

Theatre of testimonies is a place where you can share stories and try to make sense for you or other people. You showed people how you got there an d left space for them to experience your story.

How am I working with personal experiences for people? How am I documenting the story? However the audiences were not completely trained. Therefore they need a trigger to connect with the performance.

community. The witness has no remorse. A lady in the crowd gets very emotional. This was at the time of war. Therefore anyone you might know could have killed your family member. Since it was people who lived together, it had to be based on forgiveness. It was Rwandans against Rwandans.

The Riots, UK

Performative and Perfomance. A play on the Riots. Gillian who wrote the play commented that ‘theatre places the humanity back.’ We can hope that people can understand each other when they listen to each other’s voices. Gillian also comments that ‘too many people have nothing to lose; as the reason behind the riots. However a public enquiry might help. A BBC radio 4 discussion was played in class about the Riots. This makes us think about the way the data is collected and what testimonies are being used. We needed to hear from the victim and the police. Mohammed is said to hold the emotional flow of the play. It was interesting the aspect of being a criminal and a victim at the same time.

A play by Alecky Blythe

Little Revolution.

You can have a memory of that day the Riots took place. However can others memory of the riot be trusted. Also the concept of right or wrong choices.

Performing justice- Breed

  • Local and global

You can play with different settings in different places.

  • Justice system vs Theatre
  • Fear led people to kill
  • Witnessing and embodiment leads to trauma healing

Please send E-Portfolio link tothis week.

Amanda Breed: a.breed@uel.ac.uk

Applied Theatre Portfolio

Student I.D. Number: U1323625 Date: 15/10/2013
The above student is registered with our Service as having a Specific Learning Difficulty (SpLD). SpLDs are neurological disorders and are recognized disabilities that adversely affect a student’s academic performance in some, or all, of the following key areas:
– reading accuracy (misreading texts, exam questions, instructions etc.)
– reading comprehension (particularly at speed)
– proofreading (even when work is spell-checked)
– spelling / use of capital letters
– grammar / punctuation
– organisation of written ideas (sequencing ideas, word order / word omission, sentence structure, paragraphing)
– handwriting speed and legibility
– concentration
– problems with short-term memory
– difficulties pronouncing, sequencing or finding words when speaking (may affect oral exams / presentations)

Dyspraxic students may also display:
– physical co-ordination difficulties
– problems with spatial awareness

Tutors are asked to make reasonable adjustments when marking coursework and to focus on content and understanding of the subject wherever possible. This does not apply to competence standards.

Coursework:

With adjustments in place a student is expected to meet the course competencies. This document asks that tutors take account of minor errors that, despite the student’s best efforts, may have been overlooked during the proofreading process.

Examinations and tests:
Errors may become more severe in test situations and towards the end of a piece of writing, particularly under time pressure.
This certificate is for the sole use of the student identified above. Any unauthorised use will result in disciplinary action up to and including exclusion.
Any queries to: ddac@uel.ac.uk

Applied Performance Digital Portfolio
Chanel Falzon
U1323625
The portfolio contains reflections on theatre visits, independent research completed for the module and readings.
Log Entry 1
Critical reflection on class notes and readings
Session topic: Theatre for development.
Date: 4 November
Lecturer: Ananda Breed

Theatre development is very useful within communities, as it brings a message to the communities to understand educational values and to inform awareness to the communities, but this in itself can be problematic development is important and has relevance and perception for example, development and under development.
*Offers new ways of doing things so that things might happen.

*Brings about social change, changing things for the better.

Within society development has more reference [gives favour] to the upper middle classes, rather than the working class people.

MDA; [1992] developed changes within the social ream to be able to improve people’s living standards.

Within the reams of development project. You could say that there was an economic arena in place.

Facilitator’s development was to consider the arena of it and the measures with in the place to as at this to happen.

The development was put in either better or worse sections.

Have an awareness of whose arena you are putting to depict or embrace.

T FD uses more of a more of a modernisation approach to communicating messages from the centre to the proprietary. Theatre has been used for mobilisation community, even though this is not a bad thing to be doing. It’s possible it can be problematic to some theatre companies.

Where in to get individuals engaged in dialogue to brainstorm and how the process of going to be developed, theatre poses problems rather than providing solutions.
Therefore, what sort of theatre form is developed because problems arrive within the situation?

Where is the space for action and reaction when trying to carry out change?
Case study theatre for dead development of Malawi. [Action theatre]
There was a lot of interesting features; they use nets mosquito nets as part of their slogan.
It felt like the narrative was part of the drama and the monotony of the women’s for woman’s voice, might just have been normal to people because they understood her totally.
What type of drama was it? Follow theatre of theatre in education? Maybe it was because it had an educated message, it was theatre in education.

Case study/theatre for development in Zimbabwe.

Very interesting perceptive that was observed from the way men and women in the village learn how space and power is used, through drama, plays which showed how to communicate what one was trying to say or to portray.

When undertaking a play addressing within a community tissue. How do you find out what the issue is?

Theatre and Development – Pretki
My reading reference is; Prentki (2015 in print) ‘History and Origins of Theatre for Development’ from Applied Theatre: Development. London Bloomsbury Metuen. Pp. 6-20.
Idea behind the Theatre for Development:
According to Prenkti, Theatre for Development is said to have derived from Marxism’s philosophy.

We were asked to prepare for the class that will be led by Clean Break by reading from the book of Anna Herrmann (2009)
In this book Herrmann explains that the works of Clean Break should not be ‘Prison Theatre’ and also about how ‘Clean Break’ was so effective. In the first instance women were asked if they knew the meaning on ‘Clean Break’. The responses received varied among women, some said it was a safe place, where they could a second chance and start all over again, while others felt it was an alcohol free and drugs zone.
Clean Break is a company that was founded in 1979 by two female prisoners with the aim to help women realise and sustain their ambitions. They now work with women in the communities. The groups consist of women that were once prisoners, women with mental health as a result of drug or alcohol abuse and seen to be at risk. All these types of women are put together to be students who are trained in North London. Herrmann suggests this is more of community theatre.
The company also produced theatre using the women’s stories of crime and this is an annual event with the aim of challenging the audience with their perception of women and crime. The training programme involves working with women directly giving an opportunity for women to develop themselves and become professionals. The belief is that theatre is a social, personal powerful tool to develop women who have gone through criminal justice. Since the 1990s when the Training programme was established, it has grown and now meets the needs of diverse women in the dynamic world. The training programme courses include; Anger in Management, literacy and self-developing skills for life.
However, Herrmann has opinion presented by five women that had gone through ‘Clean Break’. They talked about how the programme has benefited them though they don’t include the company on their CVs so that it doesn’t reveal their past experience. Women felt the place being a ‘Safe Place’ contributed to have them in the company especially those women that experienced violent relationships. The company was also referred to as ‘mother-ship’ because the women could return if needed to.
Finally women talked about giving back to the receiver their changed roles by insipiring other women at the company.

5th November 2014
Week 6: Theatre for Development
This lecture on Applied Theatre –Theatre for Development was delivered by Sheila Preston. She asked us to do an exercise as a warm-up. We were all given numbers 1 to 4, and these numbers corresponded to different animals. She asked us to portray the animals in the best way we can and find others in class that had the same number by identifying the animal they portrayed if it matched with yours. The game was interesting and this helped to focus throughout the session.
Sheila explained that there are many categories that make up “Theatre for Development”. They are only differentiated by names like Theatre in Education. Theatre for Development (TFD) was started in at a university department and was used by middle-class students. They used theatre to understand their communities. She said the word development means progress or making something better. We had a discussion on E15mothers background when we talked about capitalism.
In the session to help us understand, Sheila talked about the quotes of “…Bringing in about social change in order to improve living standards of people” (Mda, 1992). This meant something bigger compared to capitalist development. Another quote was “…Address issues of self development by participating in theatre process” (Prenki in Eskamp, 2006). This quote means to develop those taking part not only to develop and area of space.

Sheila talked about modernisation approach to development and mentioned President Truman and that of 1949. He brought about terms of ‘underdeveloped countries’ and ‘third world’. His feeling was that poverty in the underdeveloped countries was a ‘handicap’. TFD was used as ways to communicate to messages to the target audience of the government as exogenous development. The use of visual images was effective because they felt it stayed in people’s minds longer than listening to speech.
Exogenous development includes:
 Modernised principles
 We know what’s best for you approach
 Theatre carrying messages on themes like health and literacy
This was changed in 1990s from modernisation to participation. They made people learn by doing what they were told to do than just listening. However, this was argued it was not the right way. Therefore the alternative approach was endogenous theatre which involved listening, dialogue and empowered people that participated.
At this point we had an access break. When we returned to the session,

Log Entry 2
Critical reflection on workshop
Session topic: Being a facilitator
Date: 4 November
Lecturer: Ananda Breed
Working with in Ananda’s class. I was learning the understanding of what it would be like to become a facilitator, what they have to do and why? I found this work extremely useful and stimulating and because of this it helped me open my mind and think out of the box to develop new techniques and I found myself beginning to think in different ways of thinking as a facilitator would think, after doing the workshop with Amanda I gained knowledge and learnt that we use techniques and add these techniques to my tool belt of knowledge, therefore, when I need to use any technique I could pull it out of my tool belt and use it. I found this technique extremely useful.
Rhondda showed the warmup from other cultures and Rhondda was aware of what the students were doing in the room, as a good facilitator massed have the most energy as this is very important because they must take notes of what’s happening to the group within movements and different energy levels.

When you wear trainers hat on, when you fill the exercise, it is important, then make sure the group is relax so you must gave the group space to create a comfortable environment.
You must monitor your own work as you are the trainer, use games so this helps facilitator to remember better take note. It is very important. The use of space at the same time try to memorise the space as the facilitator’s job is to prepare the space beforehand example; get the chairs set out ready before the class begins when filling the space be mindful of what’s happening around you, and question whether any of the students was having any problems with in the space beforehand before that point. Hundred and
Participation of theatre involves the actor and the audience to be able to communicate together. This is achieved through questions and answers for the example; to relate to every day live involvement of the audience to take part of what is going on and how to develop trust with in the group and the participates, taking part as the facilitator is showing guidelines to the project and must add a very deep awareness in regard to what is needed to be done.
Log Entry 3
Critical reflection on theatre visit and 5 associated photographs
Play: Dusk
Date: 4 October

On Saturday October 4th 2014 at 11:30am, myself and my two children age 9 and 10 there names were Paris and Lee arrived at the theatre in Stratford Circus, we arrived early so we sat at a table and waited.

At 11:30am the door was opened by a lady standing in front of the door, we got directed in by the Asia to go and stand next to the wall. The atmuastfear was misty then everybody stood around waiting, my most clever daughter Paris notested there was tails hanging from the ceiling!

The actor introduced himself as an It and explained that him and the other It’s lived in a forest. The actor was expressing the story of the It family, suddenly the tails that Paris saw hanging from the ceiling was being lowered by a rope. There was tails for adults, kids and toddles also baby’s there was no more kids tails so Paris got an adult tail she felt and stroked the tail it was soft and the size of the tail was really big, she liked it and wanted to keep it. Paris thought she could and she thought they were giving them out and letting you keep them but then I explained that she couldn’t, she wasn’t actually upset she just wanted to see the show and participate in it.

When I asked Lee if he was going to get a tail he said no because he thought he was too old to take part I didn’t think so the adults took tails so why can’t he? In addition to that they were older than him so I didn’t think he was too old are you kidding me? So he did not take a tail.

When the other people received their tails they put them on and helped their little ones to put them on Paris thought it was fun having a tail on because Paris like well-loved fluffy soft things like teddy bears and the tails were fluffy (well I think fluffy) and soft but she didn’t really like the colour the colour was brownish and she didn’t really like that.

Then everyone sat down within the setup of the stage, the actor was spinning howling like a wolf! The projector was used within the theatre the film showed a story of an It like the actor himself. You needed a green mark on your forehead to show that you lived in the forest with the It family so we got green face paint on out forehead Paris got it on her forehead and her nose. Just then next to the screen coming from the projector was a big glowing ball that changed colours! It was amazing but strange it was strange because the glowing ball was shown in the film and the It got lost but he followed the ball it was very strange but good so we can have a closer look at the ball the one next to the projector.
A little bit later when the It was still lost he found the forest! But he saw something dreadful a machine was tearing the forest apart! It was total torture! BUT WAIT A SECOND he found the same red door that was in the theatre! He peered once through the red door but it was like a totally different world…… but when he looked again he found his family after that he was walking through the red door in the theatre!!!!! In celebration of his arrival the adults, kids and toddles/baby’s danced (well jumped and span) and howled with joy!

A question for Paris “What did you think of the show Dusk?”
“ I HATE the name because it doesn’t match any bit any bit of the film or the acting! Well the only thing I liked about the show was the……

TAILS!!!!!!!!! Paris replied.

The following 5 photographs were taken before, during and after the theatre visit. They were chosen as evidence of the theatre visit and that we took part in the interactive elements of the performance, including having our faces painted and wearing tails.
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20141004_123145

20141004_123138

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Log Entry 4
Critical reflections on theatre visits
Theatre Event: Afro Vibes
Website: http://www.afrovibesuk.com/
Date: 13 to 18 October

20141111_03353320141111_033518

This entry and the next one are in relation to the Afro Vibes Theatre Festival. I went to two different plays in the festival, Rhetorical and Rainbow Scars.
Play: Rhetorical
Date: 16 October

+ When I entered the theatre schoolchildren class was in the audience sitting in the front seats.
• Nelson Mandela president of South Africa.
+ Videos show of dedication to Nelson Mandela, when the race is one it would succeed in our own.
+ Act to come out dancing- stage set up books are on the floor and at actor is looking at the books, speaking in his own language.
• Very funny- big dodder – story telling, poetic- academic disclosure- doing- thinking- music used- after the actor picks up the books with excellent knowledge of what all the books are.
• Actress on stage talking about Mandela intentions- talking about Mandela’s, knees- regimes- white main trees- people- moving peacefully.
+ Spotlight on actor giving spectacular speech- other actor enters both fighting for the microphone.
+ Speech- background people marching. Then come on stage march in with revrum – showing protection on back of stream– singing BV it should be rich, rich, rich in rehearsals—
+ actors talking- about new South Africa- actors on my talking about the people of Africa- stories- poverty – shame.
+ Consideration of each actor.
+ Actors carrying- box- tips- house- on back- fire- no electricity- house made out of iron- house burnt down- woman washing clothes.
• Homelessness- lost every think- for the second time- stressed out- doesn’t want poverties show- struggle- life.
+ Vote for change. One actor- in spotlight other in background.
+ Eight children from different men and don’t get support from government and sister children. Her sister died- one Bros Child mental illness- brother- grandmother- 23 moth to feed and only one pension- and child great teenager problematic.
+ Going through names in native tongue- talking about poverty at the blink- gods forgot- being condemned for caring for baby
• showed video- Hitler world war two- showed a Abraham Lincoln- I had a dream that whites and blacks can socialise.
+ Winston Churchill all World War II Prime Minister- politics- country- two nations- politicise
+ made movement funny- free actors are running- guns- shooting- using dancing- with guns in hand- dancing- fun.
+ Re-force- who- more- powerful use music.
+ Beating women – pregnant-taking them away- drugs all about money -many of us-work-gangs-terror rise-24 seven -every thousand crimes each one crime. There are only 77 convictions.
+ Cat like wild tiger-jalwa is a car— laugh -pointing the gun to the audience gun delay time made it very funny.
+ Two actors speaking over one another’s dialogue-music used- my baby don’t care-dancing- flirting- fun- funny.
+ Actor Doctor very sincere- but very funny- use miming- accompanied by sad music.
+ From rags to riches got job- dance workmen with River McCall sound.
+ Woman walks on stage slender dance tango with actor music used Roxsam – very funny audience loved it.
+ Actor workmen were seduced by actress that was dancing actor workmen went home to wife. He danced with his wife.
+ Act to claim workmen was sick- used red scar as a symbol of blood- s sickness – Aids – message scafe represented sickness- Dr examined workmen- Dr use sign of the cross- no hope- died.
+ Death- angel of death- carried workmen’s body off- Dr- dispenser of death= HIV AIDS- giving messages to get rid of- terrace tests- aids found- HIV-positive- must be shipped to the death camp- exterminated- mad Dr
+ war- fighting- Parliament politics- play fighting, very funny.
• Sure of two actors ending scene washing music- are they Maria in the background.
+ Two women actors speaking over each other protest on projections.

+ Actors enter singing and dancing. One actor telling the story and the other one dancing, making it very funny- singing just brings my machine gun.
• Actors use different scarfs and hats to resemble different characters- tribes feeling what they do traumatic experience- music
+ Questions and answers
Feeling human- associated a lot in similar allegations they counted the internal that brought it example balm president because of money situations.
+ Books scattered around- class highlighted some of the things education within urban cultures, no identification- finds it.
+ Look like it mainly covered urban a lot was left out of the play format. Full magically on speeches many different adaptions with in the play, depending on where it was performed.
+ By tape the consumption of it was funny- linked the whole thing together- find a way to keep it fresh.
+ Looks for research on character and use on different abstracts
+ originated from the piece. This had been performed in South Africa, but what different is it bred Brinley one’s again worked very much, but don’t like that.
+ Answer two questions from director performed shows in Africa first did it in market theatre, John Runge barge they loved all the ways and they understood more of the and stereotypes when it went to France. They didn’t know who the characters was and it was a gamble to put on the performance as the risk was to show new audiences as they had no experience of African culture and the characters which was played with in this theatre piece.

Log Entry 5
Critical reflections on theatre visits
Theatre Event: Afro Vibes
Website: http://www.afrovibesuk.com/
Date: 13 to 18 October

Play: Rainbow Scars
Date: 17 October

+Stage set- sofa table 1 chair with actors standing on it, holding a pose changing arm movement.
+ African culture-mother and daughter-light changes goes on to one actor the other actor talking to a teacher-very good dialogue like another person is there.
+ Funny mum and daughter online looking at men rainbow Nations.
+ Other actors standing on chair doing arm movements.
+ Mother black children adoption-support group daughter is black and mother is white rainbow stories
+ talking to judge about bowel to get out.
+ Segregation passport control raises the issue about mother and daughter actress comments stick it up your fat ass -very funny as it came from a white middle-class actres
+ actress using stripping sounds good drama emphasis.
+ Main actor very good- extremely clear cultures use their blackness when applying for university.
+ Corruption paid someone paid cops money.
+ Actors on witness stand, giving character reference for husband.
+ Class money –identity- division- between- mum upper-class.
+ Some humorous moments backing house- crimes- 80%.
+ Spoke in native tongue.
+ Different models beliefs because of different culture backgrounds.
+ Good emotional content in right places.
+ Giving story of what happened using hand with movement through voice and movement together very effective.
+ Dance movement to express anger through actors.
+ South Africa works of the rich and not for the poor.
+ Very dominant- now actor got shot and killed tragically ended life goes on in rainbows stories
Below are two photos of the theatre progamme for the Afro Vibes Festival.

Log Entry 6
Critical reflection on theatre visit
Play: Mandela
Date: 17 October
• They used blackboards on the stage against a circular chairs around the edge of the stage- on the boards were written- the future-marries-politics- school- passions- there was too blank boards what was the blank balls for I was thinking?
+ The stage setting- very interesting the setting of the stage very basic, but the chairs were set up around the back and at the sides of the stage and at the back there was a drum.
+ The youth theatre was introduced – the opening scene was a group of two different young actors and actresses. There was a set of boys and a set of girls. The Girls behaviour and the way they moved were like a boy, the gills at attitude of the boys and the boy’s behaviour was like the girls so they swapped roles.
• The young actors made contact eye contact with the audience the boys were encouraging one of the boys actors to to communicate with the gale actor and the girls were encouraging one of the gills actors to communicate one of the boys.
+ The all the actors were females there were eight actresses on stage. They were singing, but also writing on the black couple’s text talking and giving directions of a clue they are within the planning of the story. They had a map on the floor which represented different continents different parts of the country.
+ These were the different parts of the country is named 1-graaffrenet-2 matatleie. 3 mhatha. 4 East Cape . 5 grahams town. 6 . Port Elizabeth . 7 East London.
• Giving stories of different things linking what they are and talking about parent’s dad’s etc.
• sitting on chairs all the actors focuses on one act two at the time they were facing the front.
+ Story of parents and happenings- stick patient- despair- sadness- eight then a workshops- within the performance testimonies of life stories- reality contents- song- reality songs the whole’s apart must come down to Africa will be saved- singing in African language.
+ Two actresses- political- medical stories of HIV-positive with in the emotional content with in the story.
+ On the back of the chairs, said- if you could go back in time- emotional content good way to draw the audience attention.
+ Acting with rap- using the chairs as a class school set up stories with song about having another chance and the group of actresses was singing together unitedly
+ Religions content opposing about religion, and religious groups- one actress was being opposed with conflict.
+ Humour part funny- born again Christian – with opposing views- using for S when changing sentimental and sad- testimonies- brother died.
+ It buying the audience into the performance with the emotional content element of very strong focus on the storytellers
+ Singing with a motion or content links to testimonies and strong united team work.
+ Politics within Africa- joking about politicians.
+ Change in South Africa government- no libraries.
+ Use of props changing chairs using space within the song they sang- men, their act like boys joke 9 mm shouts mammal’s name.
+ Changed frame steel frame- using drum playing sports.

+ The performance of HIV-positive- they use dance, grammar and house- beaver boy reggae -verge
+ Song Africa cultural can care with dance—
+ -future– all individuals same what they wanted to be .
+ Singing on earth when you have a new child-song I am we are closer-good way of using singing and real testimonies.
This show showed reduces of song and real live testimonies showed stories of South African women giving their testimonies through poetry, song and acting
Log Entry 7
Critical reflection on introductory day
Topic: Introduction to the Autumn Term
Date: 22 September
First day
The First day at University 22nd of the September 2014 introduction

• We did role-play.
• Dr Amanda Breed, reader
• Dr Dominic hingorani, senior lecturer- directing acting.
• Eve katsouraki, senior lecturer familiar to find a way of thinking how? Thought thinking we form installation- film- live art- how do more with Text- writing post beneath of Protonix theatre- how change.

• George lope Ramos lecture put in performance on everywhere. What will we invite audience to do- September until December- gaming- shifting?

+ Clare qualmann, lecture fine artists- use art to work with different backgrounds- visual- effects in experience- walking- Art network- part-time – use experience.

+ Dr Lewis Sotelo, senior lecturer, Ph.D. flourishing- theatre- performance- site-specific- Shoemaker- predictive spaces- engaging different communities.
• Sheila Preston head of subject.

+ Switch to BA drama applied theatre and performance.

+ Monday 10 to 1 room US 30N

+ Tuesday 10 to 5 for three weeks.

+ Wednesday 10 to 1

+ January 2015 next semester 10 to 1, Docklands campus.
+ 5-7 of May 2015 massive aveni time migraine program manmivni why are doing events.

• Essay very important to be handed in in January 2015 2000 words for essay, end of term to performances that will cover through the sessions with community engagement.

+ Got to look at Moodle.

• Time management.
+ Personal tutorials
+ tallying modules.
+ Past all the modules already in rolled.
+ Module level V for this year.
+ Provisional framework had six new modules 20 credits and 30 credits less assignments- more time to engage.
• Four modules, many of them cross over.
+ Finished end of April.
+ One of the assignments 12th of May portfolio.
+ Stephane work within the community.
+ 25 hours home work on my own.
+ Workshop activity better assessments- flourish- work process stop.
+ Performance of presentations.
+ Portfolio- blog
+ get feedback, a S a P
+ surmise of these assessments 20 working days.
+ Making use of tutor hours.
+ Who is my personal tutor?
+ Need to meet with tutor.
+ Six weeks meetings.
+ 20 of October Chinese whisper Clare qualmann
+ 23rd of October-26 of October what’s happening with the young.
+ 6 November economics of experience, Trinity buoy wharf 11 AM to 5 PM George Ramos.
• Work with non-existent work November 5- November 19- December 3 to 17th.
+ Office hours. Fernando Breed Monday.
29th of the ninth 2014 Mandy classroom PA 501 politics of performance and memory.

+ Name exercises.
+ Personal testimonies. How do stories replay to testimonies?
• Finding my own point.
+ conjure dripped with this shape in the play.
+ Everything, Moodle.
+ Link to my account
+ Mod descriptions.
+ Summary for workshop.
+ Next week basic thing attendance- some nonsense what happens to ask?
+ Second week stories about children are kidnapped- disappeared- someone who is not there.
+ Two basic readings to put all the structure together.
• Mass write what you don’t understand rehearsal groups of 4.
+ How do you find the argument of the point?
+ Read two basic readings. Read more material.
+ Section 3 shall thought through the story- bring objective personality- put together calculate practices.
+ Section 4 politics of memory activism and the transformation of trauma by being festive showing of streets- stages- rehearsing to sequence of involvement of the Argentina environment –question – what are you fighting for? Escrache own words, what’s the country came up with
• section 5 research on different conflicts- which would be my own museum, which would be for me- 911 How created Museum- trauma World War II+ how can you create something new.
+ Whose story can be special, wasn’t there but I can’t tell,
+ week 11 portfolio review and memory and active over two terms Jews semester A then semester B Bethnal Green World War II.
+ Sweater 20th Thursday Hackney Empire.
Performance sent- performance to- going global- Eve portfolio praise each week. Summary and analysing of work- blog- conclusion- write about workshops-
+ section 3. Every movements day -re-evaluation-learn what done-Word press– set key areas-look at melodrama room is there- pimply oh settings-think how some of the work can be used for showcase as development of professionals-how some of the work can be used for empathy is-some materials on practice of work .
Log Entry 8
Critical reflection on class notes and readings
Topic: Archives and Ontology of Performance
Date: 6 October
Lecturer: Cecilia Sosa
This entry links the Archives and Ontology of Performance session from the Politics of Memory class because it has relevance and you can use it in Applied Theatre within the context of the subject matter.
Reading is vital because it helps one to familiarise themselves with vocabulary. It also enables the one to be more aware of their own work both on stage and off stage hence being more reflective of own practice.
• Consider practical vs theoretical side.
• Ask yourself what’s being portrayed, why the writing? Etc.
Performance and disappearance: The art of the present/always at the vanishing point.
Article 1: Matthew Reason’s ‘Archive or Memory?’
Brief summary of Group 1’s presentation – New type of archive i.e. written and recorded. There is a connection between them and how you can relate to it. Disappearance of the performers’ work for instance remembering their performance.
Question to ponder: What happens in the moment of live theatre?
‘Theatre not the art of the present.’
Reviews might not necessarily depict the objective opinions but a partial review of events.
Group 2 – physical objects and memories. Live performances can be watched, may be about the experience of it. Reason combines the two because he’s on neither side of the argument. Points out both memory and archives are selective by existence e.g. ticket staff, programmer etc. He presents both pros and cons and decides that neither is superior. Can you get the same/full experience again? Live performance originality can’t be replicated?
Artists and live performance: Barba considers theatre to be the art of the present. Preserving their performance’s i.e artists but scholars were. Desiring to relive the experience.
Note: Legacy is very vital for every artist and that all should endeavour to preserve it.
– Point raised on archives and bodies by a student: Bodies can become the archive. For example ballet performances might always replicate each other.
The objectivity of the archive – Would it be parallel to memory? A source of shared or collected memory? Is there a memory of the audience? Keeping the memory of the audience alive.
It is crucial to consider both memory and performance in relation to archive. The idea that we are witnessing the power of transformation, the body to body transmission.
• Re-creating the story when we present articles we have read or experiences we have lived. However, it is almost impossible to replicate the experience.

New performance therefore, involves the memory of the previous performance. Where history and past goes into the future, changing perspective of someone’s memory
• What value would you attach to archive?
• Archive is as important as someone that wants to view it.
Rebecca Schneider: She supposes that performance remains.
THE VALUE OF ARCHIVES
‘Archives can be sold/bought for a price yet memory can’t.’
There appears to be more development and creativity within memory and archives
Remark: Who makes the choice to include a particular part of an archive? Start to lose small details of performance and if even just little bits are lost, one might never actually get to grasp the whole detail of the performance.
Archive needed to develop or change???
Are we all allowed to create archive or is it just for a few people??
Performance provides us with perspective into worlds.
‘Logic of the archive’ – performance challenges the logic of the archives.
Performance as memory – Performance is more about the re-emergence of something. Creating something new out of the articles for example. The body as collective memory or counter memory, embodied acts and performance.

Carolina Golder presentation: She said; that it’s “easier to organise demonstrations in Buenos Aires than in London.”
Log Entry 9
Critical reflection on first year lecture
Topic: Devising your own piece
Date: 30 September 2013

This entry links the session on devising your own work from the first year, reflecting on how you create your own work and what makes it interesting, because it has relevance to Applied Theatre and how you make that work as a practitioner
Log 30 of September 2013

week 1
I sat and observed all the different pieces of work. The students had shown they were in 4 or five different groups approximately, the most memorable of the pieces of work that I saw was the monkey piece and the voice structure and the diversity of the peace standing out the most. And it was very interesting the way the Monkeys with in the peace became soldiers. The visual aspect of it was very apparent and very interesting to watch and then once what once I watched the 4 or 5 pieces of work from the different groups. We sat and discuss for each piece with different aspects of what it meant for us as an audience and how could you bring it up to another level and change the diversity of what was going on.
Then the tutor put me in one of the groups by my surprise I was put in the group that I like the most. The monkey group.
What is performance.
What does he say performances?
Must pick out and use it in essays
What is my opinion?
Doing the activity.
Group chapter.
Mede, look at an s system. You can train the body.
All ways. New consensus, Meyer holds by Maheks
We can step into some movement.
We can compere on what they were seeing, was a story and the malice of it.
Performances.
The possibility are endless.
Unless of what performance can do.
Knowingly and un-knowingly.
1.
2. Game
Tambour drum de= of copula= mixed race.
Pougue arrived 1500s in the West after slavery blamed one another.
.
Because capoeira helped the slaves to become strong with in their self and physical self-confidence. This helped them to develop ideas with in the mind to be able to be strong enough mentally and physically to escape slavery.
Hober capoeira is used for actors.
Songs and rhythms- men- big drums- women-shirk.
Jonjo-before samba-rota – health-stories- system.
Remember the repeating coming from one beginning section.
Leave work with more questions.
How can the feed of the pre-series become more and more?
How do you appreciate it?
Neglo= from the zebra.
Hotel medal performance with in theatre.
Prices = it is not about application, giving similarities mainly about saying what’s happening with the texts stop.
What is the author saying?
If it key to deal author and why?
Words= the author, that, find academic farming.
Read once, read again and take out the key points you need.
Read again. Then take out notes for example, singing, dancing.
Include-?.
What does the peace? Give me to help me to a shortcut to be able to construct my essay.
No quoting.
Line of the auteur and use theories them include them within the essay will stop.
No add bibliography in Journal. Are you are you are an area so you are in an
A portfolio journal is personal.
One exercise this week, create a piece on, the exercises we did in class with in the group.
Tasks, personalise from capoeira or pick one element and find a way of exploring, how you personalise your space, take the remnants meaning the essence of capoeira, isolating- elements- import- reform.
Use music to movement, not what the tutor was using.
Make this your own work and proceed to make changes.
Morning exercises.
In the morning we do a number of different exercises with a ball using arms and legs and spine moving the ball around different parts of the body to help you explore your body and become aware of the relationship between you and the ball, also giving your body mass large and stimulation making you explore and understand your complexes of your body more.
We did our monkey piece performed it to the group, and then we will put in group a stop.
We got feedback stop.
Must slow down stop.
What we are doing, and how this changes the peace,
The timing of the peace, think about how the monkeys are sounding.
How I use the prop, stick with in the peace, the characteristics of the character, notice the re-action of the audience on what’s happening when I am delivering the characteristics of the peace.
Use layering to build up the sound structure example to make it louder or may be softer.
How can you bring the balance from staring alongside building up different elements, need to experiment with timing and the level of sound quantity.
Needed concentration when constructing the audience as within part of the peace. The audience did not see what was going on. They only heard what was happening.
How can you calculate the power and element may be making sound softer play with the words?
Think how you can make it more in suspense, possibly putting the pieces paper that the audience were reading with in envelopes, which brings a different element of suspense, then the audience would have to open the envelopes before reading the instructions.
The suspense from the audience point of view, facing away, and what is going to happen next.
Performance on what we have done within my group, bring this more in, fresh, clear big movements awareness of space stop.
Stick game.
In pairs work together using stick, 1 need to keep eye contact 2 spell was stick 3 halt stick with one finger, 4 change levels of where you put the stick higher low 5 feel the tension when holding stick with in the game, 6, when you get confident do more and take risks. 8 work on stick game more.
Cat and mouse game, one went in groups of three people, 1 One mouse in the groups of three. 3) And you need to link on to one of the groups then the person on the end leaves and becomes the mouse.
Log Entry 10
Critical reflection on class notes
Topic: Facilitators working within the arts as practitioners
Date: 30 September
Lecturer: Ananda Breed
Notes written on the white paper:
DEVAMPIAH,
GOING ON A TRIP,
SPACE,
PARTICIPATORY THEATRE,
GROUND RULES/EXP,
FACILITATION.

Module intentions:
Train as facilitators, arts practitioners etc. This might be in a school, hospital or to create specific projects. Within the next three weeks, we will have intense training on what facilitation and techniques required might be like. A discussion of the theoretical mixed with practice for the rest of the module. Guest speakers, practical exercises will be involved.
Between weeks please do a bit of homework, become familiar with bits of exercises for instance, acting.
Foreign theatre – spectators become actors to find solutions to the problem.

What they are doing:
Begin by opening the space. Worked in Rwanda and she’s shown the warm-up from other cultures. Creates inclusivity and sensitivity from what others in the room might be doing.
Recital of the Rwandese recital, shown the physicality of the routine.
The move: – right turn, lift leg, skip a bit up and down, turn round as they sing the routine.
More energy than anyone in the room as facilitators is vital.
Notice the effect to the group: bodies moving, different levels of energy.
Trainer hat: where the exercise would be important – make group relax and give room to create a comfortable environment. Facilitate unity within the group, create a can-do attitude within the group. Be conscious of where the voices are coming from as a facilitator and therefore devise ways to encourage all to participate.
– Monitor your own participation especially as a trainer.
Questions to ponder:
How theatre can be used to create tolerance in areas of conflict.
How to use theatre to change policy.
What the facilitator has to consider:
Can use name games to help remember the names of individuals in the group.
Space: It is very important and the facilitator needs to make sure it is organised when the group walks in. Familiarise yourself with the space, try and mark it in your memory. What does it feel like? Walk to an area that you don’t seem to like. Something about that area that you don’t like. What don’t you like about that space?
What would you as a facilitator do about the unwanted space or what the reasons that the members are saying? Did anyone have a problem with the space until it got pointed out?
Moving through the space, try to notice the things or areas you like in it….
Through the space filling the gaps, mindful of what’s happening around you. How can you use your body to fill the space?
Participatory theatre:
What is it?
Involves;
– The audience and actors communicating with one another through questions and answers i.e. common learning.
– An application to everyday life.
– Working together
– Audience seen as a co-participant.
– Role as an audience member. Being part of what’s going on than be passive.
– Used to create equality, community.
– How to enhance the trust within the group/participants is really important.
Note: the facilitator offers guidance to the project. However, on the onset, it might not be easy to know where you are going. Alter your reactions, improvise, have a deeper awareness of what needs to be done. (Give/take in adaptations).
• Setting ground rules of expectations during time on module.

Please see Moodle for details on subsequent weeks’ lecture plans.
Week 1:
Focus on interactive performance techniques
As students will begin to develop a toolbox that will enable you to become good facilitators. This could be vital in various areas for example; business, schools. The skills are transferable. Think how the methodologies can be applied.
Week 2:
Applied theatre training.
Session will allow for practice image theatre. Note that, from 5-6, next week, there will be a performance cabaret.
Week 3:
Presenting mini workshops, working in facilitating teams. Developing a toolbox, training yourself as a facilitator.
Belgrade Theatre Company, Big Brum, age exchange and Greenwich and Lewisham young people theatre.
Week 5: Theatre for young audiences
Working with various practitioners
Recommended theatre visits
– Dusk; Stratford circus.
Week 6: Theatre and Development
The term theatre for development – historical context is in development practices. In poorer countries, it’s primarily for development purposes. It is more often than not, explained in an international context.
 Suggested readings are in the module guide.
 Essay will be due in week 11.
Formative and summative assessments.
For purposes of the essay, ask yourself, what area of theatre excites you? For example, theatre and refugees, theatre in prison, theatre in school etc.
See; Mark Storer, practitioner and visual artist.

Log Entry 11
Critical reflection on class notes
Topic: Techniques for using games and group participation
Date: 7 October
Lecturer: Ananda Breed
Bullet points on white sheet:
Car/Driver
Three Image story
Fluid sculptures
Commedia characters
Yssy-Kul
Story circle
Forum theatre diagram
5 freeze frames
Curriculum workshops

Class was asked to work in small groups to discuss the reading.
Brief group discussions of readings
Applied performance – embodies the aspect of being current and in the face of audiences and sharing interests with the public life. Uses so much more of the audience’s reaction and communal stories. It depends on the audience a lot of the time.
Looked at how applied drama pulls in lots of different areas. Barba had no one set definition. Had a similar point of view but relied on other people’s ideas, key performances. Practitioners as producers, not only a person but as a group too. Focus more on processes. It is like an umbrella in terms of range of processes e.g. medicine, drama therapy, education, foreign theatre etc (applied drama and applied performance.
Note: Consider the application of drama and performance.

John Littleworth looks at how communities interact for instance like the social aspect, and how drama and performance can be used as a reflection.
Making awareness can be pulled in the aspects of people’s way of living – people’s consciences.
Applied theatre: It is a knowledge gaining process for participants, is provocative, works with ideas of education, applied theatre etc. Theatre and drama can be intent to the founding precepts of drama and theatre.
– Gives freedom to the participants.
– The needs of whatever community it’s applied to.
– Having a scope of who’s involved. How do we apply the practices.
Applied performance vs drama and theatre.
Performance practices as education, social. The author uses the term applied as connection of the ideas. It goes into contemporary applications of performances. Contemporary performance like specific performance.
What would you consider as contemporary performance practices?
Write your briefs in terms of each article. There are a lot of debates that arise so it is crucial to know what the debates are. Applied performance vs applied drama.

Do a thorough reading of the two aspects – Applied performance vs applied drama
Applied theatre performance
• Collective identities
• Benefit societies and communities
• Therapy
• Social
• Educational
• Place of learning
• Educational
• Audience interaction
• Experiencing yourself
• Audience interaction

Playback theatre:
Note: Get into curriculum groups and next week deliver workshops.

Brief activity of learning each other’s name. Saluting each other while telling names
Active listening and about telling stories (big part of playback theatre).
Prerequisites of telling your story
– Have someone
– Be comfortable
– Be interesting
Be engaging to connect. For connection to happen you need the eye contact, show with body that you are listening, give your all i.e. your concentration. It is about acceptance, being totally comfortable and confident (totally available). It requires trust. Trust exercise:
Driver technique – Ananda directed Ben along – right shoulder tap, turns to the right, left shoulder turns to the left, back is reverse, head tap is forward movement. This was replicated by entire class. ‘cars’ asked to close their eyes and the ‘drivers’ led them around the theatre.

Sensations/discussions of trust exercise:
Felt weird, thought she would hit a wall. That something was right there.
Awareness of the surrounding action.
Teamwork effects – more comfy as a car or driver?
Struggling with self not to trip ‘don’t have good balance.’ Have to trust yourself first.
Totally letting go feeling
Like being led.
Trust between drivers and other drivers in the room. Awareness and trust between them.

Listening – telling a story in 3 images. Could be metaphoric rather than real.
Sad, happy etc.
Create 1st, 2nd and 3rd image.
Your demo of listening is thru the images u create.

Listener stands up after convo in front of the teller. Make eye contact

1st image at the count of 3.

2nd image at count of 3
3rd image at count of 3

Listener stands up after convo, makes eye contact.
1st image at the count of 3.

2nd image at count of 3
3rd image at count of 3

Now discussing the images and stories told in the pairs…

Playback
3-4 performers
Conductor and teller.
Plays between the audience and performers is called a conductor in playback.
Performers to listen deeply as in paired conversations.
What are the tellers communicating? In gesture, emotion etc. after teller shares story, queue will be ‘let’s watch…’ listen to what someone else is sharing and build into that image.
Angie tells high school story. Engagement with danger
Shouts out: ‘evacuate class fire go repeatedly.’
2nd teller comes up – narrates story about course change.
– ‘have to get out.’ Actors; ‘eve can u help me please.’ Other; ‘much better.’
3rd teller shares story – narrates story on picking money
– acts out rain pissing down, others; mom I found money, counts it…
4th teller shares story – travel and holiday story over the summer holidays.
Conductor’s body language turned away from Ben but it should be otherwise.
5th teller shares story – Ghana holiday experience.
Observations
Waking up still on how to use ‘our’ bodies.
Recondition actor and story teller
Going for the nuggets of the story. Listening to one another and not having a preconceived emotion.
Sharing responsibility, taking their turn, mirroring back emotion.
Pay attention to one or more actors i.e. peripheral vision of events.
How would you apply this?
Drama therapy – NYU
Playback theatre got a lot of books you can reference.
International playback groups.
Working with younger children. Used around bullying in primary school in NY.
Creating a space, in theatre in prison. Stories that create meaning.
Playback theatre in church – tell a moment from your life, testimony etc.
Starts to connect people’s stories but not so much educational.
Activity after lunch break:
Walking around the room in a circle, pulling chest forward, hips leaning, chin forward, backward, back to chest, back to forehead.
NOTE: Please double check the spellings below.
Deteore
Caputano – Lifting legs forward like it’s a heavy match
Pantelone – man or woman holding a money belt. Pulling stunts to show this move.
Anamorata (lovers); stunts of lovers
Zani; pulling stunts of an ogre…
Prigele (cuts through like a knife), slides…
Bride kidnapping in Kazakhstan: 50% …however now there’s a lot of sensitisation against such practice. There’s a need to understand the origins of such traditions.
Legend read out about Kazakhstan – about a girl that had been asked for hand in marriage but continually refused, until one day she was kidnapped etc. (groups created to discuss legend and asked to act it out).
Clear story lines with images
Young audience getting the story
Protagonist and antagonist – foreign theatre used in different ways by practitioners; street for non-theatre goers. Commedia in foreign theatre.
Landlord as an example of commedia character
The miser; one who never really has enough money.
Putting together a storyline that ends in tragedy. One time through without stopping through the point of crisis.

Creating foreign theatre models:
Use your own stories to create a foreign theatre model. Share a moment where you felt oppressed.
Think of circumstances of that situation. Practice in your circles the same foreign theatre…
Note: In foreign theatre model: Story selected becomes the selective story that is used or developed by the group.
How can protagonists in the group can be changed? Think about allies…
Counter actions to the stories that have been told in order to get back to our normal selves…
Running about as someone sings, then taps someone.
Activity:
Class asked to lie down, put heads on each other’s stomach… Random activities in trios with transitions into several routines.
Foreign theatre on protagonist (focus is). It always ends with a crisis. Protagonist doesn’t always achieve their goal. Both the pro and ant haven’t allies. This model the goal could be to become a gymnast or athlete for example. There are challenges that might inhibit the person. A name has been chosen for example; Nicky goes gym, a lot of positive reinforcement, has been selected to be top girl in activities yet at home, there isn’t much support. There could be a variety of reasons for instance; luck of money. Friends, schools or has to do a lot of chores at home, school is beginning to fail, and then Vicky probably begins to miss classes. Consequently, might fail to achieve her maximum potential e.g. sexism, hostility at home. The model is created trying to understand why these have happended.
Now she fails to join the team…so why??? – Who therefore might be inhibiting her achievement?
Allies could be (spectator, spectactor). Think of possible allies that might support her situation. What could therefore happen at each level???
Asked to act out their chosen stories.
Group 1: Acts out the gay student’s story.
Subtle poses of gay couple.
Name calling on the street
Discussing and rehearsing out the routine developed from the story in various scenes.
1. High-street
2. Workplace
3. ……
4. Senior manager
5. ……
Group notes on gay story:
Allies:
Couple
High-street
Fellow worker
Police – high street
Shopkeeper
HR Rep
Tolerance goal:
Crisis
Lack of support
Violence action
Upper mgt
Losing jobs
Attitude/rebellion to authotirty
Work promotion to manager
Closest community coz of reaction
Intervention/not happening
Name calling
Dialogue, develop characterisation, create characteristics – rehearse rthat over the next week.
Rehearse play in own work groups.

Log Entry 12
Critical reflection on class notes
Topic: Theatre and education – the transformation of education and how drama has contributed to the education system.
Date: 21 October
Guest Lecture
Introduction from group presentation and of the lecturer too.
Today –
Theatre and education
Drama and education
There’s a lot of other practice happening elsewhere in spite of the fact that it is more UK based.
How will it influence my practice?
Look at education philosopher Paulo Freire – a look at some of his theories and try to relate them to how they influence practice. How does this affect you and how you articulate it to yourself?
Book: Pedagogy of the oppressed.
Every human had the ability to critically engage with the world. Quite visionary with how people saw learning. Influenced applied theatre, theatre in education movements, education in theatre etc.
Critiquing existing forms of education and proposed learner centred strategies political in a sense where individuals would become active in changing their world.
Look at his critique and consider how we might use it to change our view of education. His banking system of education
He advised a transformative form of education – teacher/pupil contribution of education. Find ways of resolving the issue where pupils see themselves as knowing nothing and the teacher knows all. Allow for a co-existence and the teacher should possess a ‘humble’ approach to passing on knowledge. There’s a possibility of contradiction, therefore it’s vital that they allow the teacher to come down to their level rather than have a receiver expectation.
If you’re giving the pupils power it’s important that you don’t give them everything at once.
Brunner – suggests that one is capable of teaching any subject at any level.
Oppressor/oppressed relationship – liberation or change should come from the oppressed. People need to realise the injustice of their circumstances.
Phillip Zimbardo – Book: Why do people turn evil?
Naming the world – realisation of who I’m and how this affects one’s relation to everything around them.
Through dialogue, one can have the opportunity to learn and improve on what they know. The process would involve the idea of problem posing.
Praxis- how you do and think about what you do. (The action and reflection).

Drama stuff:
Key players in Drama and education – Brian Way, Peter Slade, Dorothy Heathcote, Gavin Bolton
Drama could help us understand our world and the actions of the humans in it.
Dorothy saw a situation where child takes on the role of an expert. Create a situation where the child is in charge. Against the idea of drama lessons but it world happen through
Hywel Roberts – Book: Oops! Helping children learn accidentally.
Metaxis – real & fictions.
Awareness of ‘this is happening to me now,’ or ‘I’m making this happen.’ Simultaneously being in two worlds at the same time. How do you then create an environment where this happens?
Process drama – is more of structured improvisation where there’s a joint agreement to do things in an imaginary world.
Drama is’ a man in a mess’ according to Dorothy Heathcote.
http://www.mantleoftheexpert.com
Dorothy Heathcote –
Yorkshire mill
Lecturer in Newcastle

In the video, apparently the kids seemed to have forgotten she was coming. She starts by getting their attention and making sure she holds it since she’s the captain of the ship trick.
Empowering the kids – giving them room to use their ideas. See their ideas come into marvelous action.
Let me take you there to the prison camp. Standard rifles (arrest their attention).
Take a role that helps to grasp their mind/attention.
Use situations that authors use (not water down drama).
Drama is a real mind of mess.
Build your background
Intensity of feeling not facts. As long as the man in the room believed it, that’s what matters. If the other group is feeling then a mistake might not be noticed or might not be an issue.
Take a little time for the children to realize that they were actually the ones talking. Want to do it without even them having it. Trying to build up profile.
She puts prompts out there, quite spontaneous and tries not to influence or structure what happens.
Go different ways into drama for instance; low status or expert. But it draws down to whether or not you are willing to take the risk with this.
Fundamental human questions or themes within the drama. Obviously when you go into a situation and are starting from scratch.
Log Entry 13
Critical reflection on class notes, readings, independent research and theatre visits
Topic: Theatre for young audiences
Date: 28 October
Lecturer: Dominic Hingorani
Theatre for young audiences.
Activity – share games you played in the playground. What imaginative games did you play in the house?
Aisha – introduces the guest lecturer and day’s activities to the class.
Remember what it was like to be a certain age i.e. 5, 6 or 7 years old.
Interest in the childhood games – having fun, a lot of talking among adults.
Think to yourself, what games you liked to play when you were younger. Play the game out without talking, change it if you get bored.
Discussion
– Felt embarrassed playing like a kid
– Reminiscent of childhood lifestyle and activity
Children tend to be quite creative. They got several ideas of games. They can easily change game as soon as they get bored. In contrast, adults tend to insist on same thing trying to make it work no matter what.
What might you expect if you went to see a show for children?
– Colours i.e. colourful costumes
– High energy so they don’t lose concentration i.e. audience interaction
Post war political landscape (please see brief notes on Moodle).
How politics affects the way in which performance works.
TYA and TIE – see; Caines, M (2013)

TYA good?
Critic the work and gauge whether this is good or not.

Fevered Sleep (1996)
David Harrdine and Sam Butler in their work highlight that relationship with target audience, notion of integrity with the work is important.

Critic the video and consider things you reckon to be noteworthy:

Have a read through the review and see where you agree, disagree or missed.

Expectations – was it what you were expecting?

Agree

Disagree
– Idea of the forest was too literal. Children tend to have a lot of energy when they play. Appeared to be over rehearsed. However, there seemed to have room for development and imagination for children to think.
– More activity or imaginative games to play in the forest. Rather the video seemed limited in the activities or imagination kids might have.
Missed

After break session:
Johnny takes class in warm-up activity before Dominic takes over.

Puppetry – Dominic asked class to get their jackets/coats (puppets) out. Asked to let it fall to the ground and then balance it up and down. Make sure you are comfy. Find a nice little space in the room, be far from the object as far as possible. Object stays still, now move back and forth etc.

Discussion
Key things you have to do in order for it to work:
– Focus on puppet. This helps to increase concentration
– Believe that what you’re using is what it is. That it is actually a puppet.
Why coats/jackets to play out puppet?
– Easy to use.
– Easy to access since a lot of people have coats. ‘Kids have coats.’
– Easier to personify it as a character.

Log Entry 14
Critical reflection on class notes
Topic: Theatre for development and working within the community.
Date: 4 November
Lecturer: Sheila Preston
Summary of article on theatre for development – Where do we position ourselves when we go out to work in communities?
Eurocentric point of view questioned in this theatre for development. This is easy to create bias and obscure opinions.
Note: Educating, inform, raise awareness does entail something challenging and problematic
Dominant idea of development – has it aligned itself or challenged itself from the norm (theatre for development)?
Development’s relevance: has a binary perception to it i.e. developed and underdeveloped.
– Bringing about social change, changing things for better.
– Offering new ways of doing things so that these things might happen.
Development has more relevance (or favours) for the upper middle class than the normal working class people.
Mda: (1992) – development aims to bring about social change to improve people’s living standards.
In pursuing developmental projects, it could be inferred that there’s an Economic agenda.
Facilitated development. Consider the agenda of it, the measures in place to allow this to happen.
Note: development is about either better or worse.
Be aware of whose agendas you depict or embrace.
TFD is more of a modernisation approach to communicating messages from the centre to the periphery. Theatre has been used for mobilising communities and as much this isn’t necessarily a bad thing, it can be problematic to theatre companies.
Top bottom approach (exogenous) – more of an external approach and
Bottom up approach (endogenous) – coming from inside/within approach, where individuals engage in dialogue to brainstorm how processes are going to be developed. Theatre poses problems rather than provide solutions.
• What sort of theatre forms that can develop that cause problems rather than provide solutions?
• Where’s the space for action and reaction when trying to carry out change?
Freire’s theory of action –
2nd half: After break session
Energizer activity for approx. 5 minutes, a brief discussion and feedback session on the activities.
Case study: Theatre for development of Malawi. (Action theatre)
Interesting features
Bed net campaign – Preventive malaria campaign funded by UNICEF.
Insecticide treated nets (ITN slogan)
Thoughts on the video
Felt like the narrator wasn’t part of the drama.
The monotony of the woman’s voice, might just be normal to the people because they understand her totally.
What sort of drama was it? Foreign theatre or theatre in education? – Because it had an educative message, it was theatre in education.
Case study – theatre for development in Zimbabwe
Interesting perspective that was observed from the way men and women in the village related – How space and power is used.
Learning to use theatre as a communication. Through drama, plays we aim to communicate and it’s important to ponder what one is trying to portray.
If we are going to undertake a play addressing a community issue, how are we going to find out what the issue is?
We were asked to prepare for the class that will be led by Clean Break by reading from the book of Anna Herrmann (2009)
In this book Herrmann explains that the works of Clean Break should not be ‘Prison Theatre’ and also about how ‘Clean Break’ was so effective. In the first instance women were asked if they knew the meaning on ‘Clean Break’. The responses received varied among women, some said it was a safe place, where they could a second chance and start all over again, while others felt it was an alcohol free and drugs zone.
Clean Break is a company that was founded in 1979 by two female prisoners with the aim to help women realise and sustain their ambitions. They now work with women in the communities. The groups consist of women that were once prisoners, women with mental health as a result of drug or alcohol abuse and seen to be at risk. All these types of women are put together to be students who are trained in North London. Herrmann suggests this is more of community theatre.
The company also produced theatre using the women’s stories of crime and this is an annual event with the aim of challenging the audience with their perception of women and crime. The training programme involves working with women directly giving an opportunity for women to develop themselves and become professionals. The belief is that theatre is a social, personal powerful tool to develop women who have gone through criminal justice. Since the 1990s when the Training programme was established, it has grown and now meets the needs of diverse women in the dynamic world. The training programme courses include; Anger in Management, literacy and self-developing skills for life.
However, Herrmann has opinion presented by five women that had gone through ‘Clean Break’. They talked about how the programme has benefited them though they don’t include the company on their CVs so that it doesn’t reveal their past experience. Women felt the place being a ‘Safe Place’ contributed to have them in the company especially those women that experienced violent relationships. The company was also referred to as ‘mother-ship’ because the women could return if needed to.
Finally women talked about giving back to the receiver their changed roles by insipiring other women at the company.

5th November 2014
Week 6: Theatre for Development
This lecture on Applied Theatre –Theatre for Development was delivered by Sheila Preston. She asked us to do an exercise as a warm-up. We were all given numbers 1 to 4, and these numbers corresponded to different animals. She asked us to portray the animals in the best way we can and find others in class that had the same number by identifying the animal they portrayed if it matched with yours. The game was interesting and this helped to focus throughout the session.
Sheila explained that there are many categories that make up “Theatre for Development”. They are only differentiated by names like Theatre in Education. Theatre for Development (TFD) was started in at a university department and was used by middle-class students. They used theatre to understand their communities. She said the word development means progress or making something better. We had a discussion on E15mothers background when we talked about capitalism.
In the session to help us understand, Sheila talked about the quotes of “…Bringing in about social change in order to improve living standards of people” (Mda, 1992). This meant something bigger compared to capitalist development. Another quote was “…Address issues of self development by participating in theatre process” (Prenki in Eskamp, 2006). This quote means to develop those taking part not only to develop and area of space.

Sheila talked about modernisation approach to development and mentioned President Truman and that of 1949. He brought about terms of ‘underdeveloped countries’ and ‘third world’. His feeling was that poverty in the underdeveloped countries was a ‘handicap’. TFD was used as ways to communicate to messages to the target audience of the government as exogenous development. The use of visual images was effective because they felt it stayed in people’s minds longer than listening to speech.
Exogenous development includes:
 Modernised principles
 We know what’s best for you approach
 Theatre carrying messages on themes like health and literacy
This was changed in 1990s from modernisation to participation. They made people learn by doing what they were told to do than just listening. However, this was argued it was not the right way. Therefore the alternative approach was endogenous theatre which involved listening, dialogue and empowered people that participated.
At this point we had an access break. When we returned to the session,
Log Entry 15
Critical reflection on workshop
Topic: Women in prison
Date: 11 November
Guest Lecturer: Anna Herrman
Anna Herrman, Head of Education
Clean Break Organisation
Works with women prisoners
The theme of women leaving prisons.
What things should a woman be staying away from:
1. Group of bad influencing individual’s
2. Place she was hanging out
3. Stay away from isolation
Things that can protect her
1. Case worker
2. Family
3. Something to do that she is passionate about.
4. Having a purpose
5. Getting kids out of care and to be close to her
We are going to look at the play Billy the girl play.
Billy has come out of prison. Ingrid is her mother. Amber is Ingrid’s daughter.
– Billy is coming out of prison with a positive mind
– Think about what are the things that are going to help her now.
Women in prison
Women prisoners make up 50% of the UK prison population.
In 1995 – 1, 979 females in prison
In 2010- 4,267 females in prison
By 10th May 2013 – 3,893 females in prison
There are 12 prisons in England and none in Wales. Most woman entering prison serve very short sentences. However re-offending rates for short sentences are higher. Most women entering prison under a sentence (81%) have committed a non-violent offence. (Compared with 71% of men).

Clean Break believes that theatre and the arts have significant benefits in realising personal creativity. The organisation has been running for 35 years. It was founded by two women who were ex-offenders. It was founded in the 1980’s where there was a movement for women in theatre.
Four key areas of work
1. Artistic
2. Engagement
3. Education
4. Leadership
Artistic
It is women only. Playwrights are written by women who conduct research in the prisons in order to create stories.
Books include:
Pests by Vivienne Franzmann
-about two young woman caught up in drug addiction. Also how they deal with these issues.
Billy the girl by Katie Hims
Dream Pill by Rebecca Prichard
Dancing Bears by Sam Holcort
Engagement
To maintain the symbiotic relationship between the education and artistic programme. Progression for our graduates on our education programme.
Theatre making in prisons
It creates a changed environment. We are not part of the system, we are independent. We are a stepping stone, informal learning: it is a springboard for women to do education. A book by Chloe Moss HMP Askham Grange.
What participants say
It is the most positive experience I have ever had in jail.
Key challenges
Asking women to take risks
To be brave
Sustain change
Saying goodbye
Managing different boundaries of project and of prison.
Managing expectations
For Clean Break
Working within the confines of prison regime. Working with the system. Needing to convince others of the power and value of work.
Education
We have a prospectus that we send out every year to prisons. We have women who come to study with us. Women only studios in North London. We work with small class sizes say 12-15 people. The first question we ask is ‘What does a clean break mean to our students?’
A Clean Break means:
Safe space
New start
Skills
Qualifications
Having Fun
Being understood
Friendships
New beginnings

Education continued offers:
Performance courses, writing courses, personal development, moving on support.
Key challenges for women
Managing chaotic lives – attendance and retention. Keeping focused. Group work skills. Meaning and purpose. Positive shifts. Improved well-being.
Longer term outcomes for society
Reducing substance misuse.
Other companies:
Streetwise Opera and The Art Alliance
Address
Clean Break
2 Patshull road
London NW5 2LB
Email: herrmann@cleanbreak.org.uk
http://www.cleanbreak.org.uk.

Log Entry 16
Critical reflection on workshop and class notes
Topic: AIDS, Sex Education and using theatre
Date: 18 November
Lecturer: Ananda Breed

Performance from Ramira Arts Collection on behalf of Shine

Play about two young teenagers and the possible consequences of unprotected sex.
What we can learn from play
1. World Aids day is on 1st of December
2. Herpes is not curable
3. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency
4. Sperm lives in the body for 7 days

Comments after play
We try and keep politics and religion out of the play.
We want to promote Shine.
Condom demo might be the only sex education one might get in a school.
Abortion is a very delicate subject that’s why we did not go into it as much.
Wording of slang words can be different for different audiences due to different age groups.
Time always may affect what you do in our acts therefore it is important to stick to time keeping.

Writing skills
What is an introduction
Gives the reader what you are going to do and how you are going to do it. 10% of our word count consists of the introduction. Introduction should start with a key point of your essay. How you are going to do it (methodology) what kinds of theories you will be using.

Main Body
Paragraphs that are roughly equal in length. Start your paragraph with a topic sentence. Use signposting words such as however, therefore. Avoid emotive language such as outrageous, disgusting. Make your answers evidence based. Do not start your opinion.
Refer to Page 2 on handout P.E.E.L.
Point-Evidence-Explain-Link
Conclusions
It’s a chance for you to give your opinion. You do not have to conclude with a final answer, you can say on one hand this or that.
Main sentence
You can use a highlighter to find the most important sentence in a paragraph. This must be at the top or near the top.
We watched the helpful advice video
Notes about what was said…
-In your essay you need to put across here’s what I looked at. Here’s the evidence. This is what others have said. Also showing that you have thought about views that have been put to you.
Ask yourself does that story make sense. Think about were the information is coming from. For example you would not take advice of lung cancer research from a tobacco company.
The flow chart of criticism
What is the writer saying?
What are the reasons behind his or her point?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the argument?
Do you agree/disagree with the argument and why?
Is the research up to date
*Look at the Flowchart of criticism handout for an exercise.

Referencing
Why do we need to reference? To prove you are not stealing someone else’s evidence. When you paraphrase you need to reference. Harvard referencing is what you will use. The other type of reference is the bibliography referencing. Your bibliography is in alphabetical order according to the surname of the author.
If you are using key theorists a lot mention their name in the actual text.

Lets practice!
It is argued that “the source of added value in the digital economy is user participation.”
• This sentence has proper reference.
A recent study found that people who used Facebook frequently tended to believe that others were happier and had better lives. (Chon and Edge)
• This sentence has no dates on reference, no punctuation in text.
Hierarchical class relation… (2008, p.120)
• This sentence has no person referenced
Another study Kransnova et al. (2013) linked Facebook usage to feelings of frustration triggered by envy…
• This sentence is good as it mentioned the whole conclusion of the author.

Bibliography
We use a bibliography to credit authors and readers can track your sources.
Also use cite them rite online.
Annotated bibliographies
To annotate – to make notes on
• Summarize
• Evaluate
• Reflect
*** Please note Formative assessments for essays are due this week. ***

Log Entry 17
Critical reflection on workshop and class notes
Topic: Oval House, young refugees and asylum seekers and trafficking
Date: 26 November
Guest Lecturer: Stella Barnes
Stella Barnes from Oval house

Stella Barnes is the Director at Oval house.
Today we will talk about young refugees and asylum seekers. These include:
-unaccompanied minors
-May have been trafficked
-Could have been bereaved- no family
-may have seen a lot of conflict in their lives

Young people are young people first, they carry other things.
-United nations says young children have the right to play. It is a human right.

Exercise
Think about the barriers to participation young asylum seekers might have in the U.K.
Be aware that you’re not in that situation.
-psychological
-economic
-emotional

List from Chanel of barriers young asylum seekers face
Racism
Missing their Mother
Fear
Prejudice
Discrimination
Slavery
Understanding of Getting up and performing
Walking into strange/new situations
Undeducated
Language
Culture
Fear
Displacement
Isolation
Human rights
Rights to Benefits
Communication barrier
Trauma
Health issues
Emotional baggage
Discrimination

Exercise – Acting on the pieces of paper chosen.

group A –Who are we to say that partition theatre is good.
-The theme of choice.
– Not having a choice.

Group B-The unheard voices
A young person might have a concern about talking about themselves. There are lots of ethical questions about the lie. Being in a position of authority may affect their relationship as a project worker towards a young asylum seeker.

Also what identity do we put on asylum seekers? How they embrace their identity is another issue.
There are two groups at Oval house:
1. We are London group – Getting involved in London
2. The paper project- about paperwork in relationship to ones status in the county and making paperwork art
Boundaries
Stella does not do therapy
Although there is a referral group
We have external supervision from a clinical psychology

Preparation is very important in terms of having the right things in place.
It is important to take all these barriers into consideration, it supports all the work you are doing. One of the biggest barriers at Oval house has been that they are not very informed about theatre. We need to think of non-language led concepts about introducing theatre such as imagination, working together as a group, emotional qualities. We play games with objects as well. Objects can be added to the games to show non-verbal ways of addressing language barriers. Using objects can show young asylum seekers how they can begin to use imaginative construction. It also enables people to recognise and resonance helps us to make group work.

Exercise in Chanel’s group
Scenario
A tutor you are working with starts asking participants about their stories of exile e.g. “What happened to you? Where do you come from? What’s the problem in your country?”
How does this affect your future practice?
• Thinking more of the needs of the young people and dilemmas
We work as gatekeepers between the young people and the world – e.g. journalism. It may affect our practice if we do not make the journalists sign an agreement.
• Personally Stella is not interested in their stories. She is interested in the now.
• For future practice it is important to note that there is boundaries in your team and boundaries with the young person.
• You must be very present as a facilitator in that moment
• Understand why people have that stance. Work in sympathy with your partnership organisation but also with what young people want as well.
• Create a non –stigmatised environment. Something that does not label them.
• We have trained a group of young people from diverse back groups who can talk to people in Arabic who go with us to communities, colleges, to explain what we do. Peer mentors.
C hanel Falzon

Log Entry 18
Reflection on class notes
Topic: How does what happens today affect tomorrow?
Date: 9 December
What is applied theatre?

Applied performance suggests that there might be a category that allows change to take place.
Applied performance is a process.
Something that happens today can affect what happens tomorrow. It is immediacy with the environment.

*What is it that applied performance is doing. You can coin the term for it. Culture is constantly evolving. Often we agree with what is in a book but it is important to counter these things. You can come up with your own debates.

Exercise on what Applied theatre is to you in groups.

You can also look up Ngugi Wationgo an African writer as reading material.
Michel Foucalt wrote about the canoptican in terms of surveillance. They question perception within modern/society. However we should understand how a prisoner got into that situation.

Also for asylum seekers there are a lot stereo types especially in the daily mail news paper.

Before you go into a project you need to know how you are going to deal with opposition. There was a wall, just like the Oval house wall. The wall was a barrier to applied performance.

Applied performance – Europe has rich history of interventionist theatre. You must have a look at a book called “Artificial hells, in relation to participatory performance.” By CLAIRE Bush. Also look at “The nightmare of participation” by Miessen.

Log Entry 19
Reflection on class notes
Topic: Plans for performance working with children
Date: 27 January
Choose day 10 AM we made our way to Mayville primary school at the arrival of the school. We checked in verification student IDs and we got passes to enter the school 11 AM we were went in to do school class. The children was in the playground having their playground playtime, as I looked around I observed How the children were whizzing around the playground. It seemed they had endless energy as they played that was children on tricycles and Running around playing happily. As I continue to look around, I noticed alone child a little girl by the fence. She was playing happily alone. I remember thinking she’s alone. It may be filling little sad and as I watched I notice she was talking I think she was talking to the pigeons, but she was very happy and then I continued looking around at the other children running around playing. It was almost as if they are no end to their energy.
Then the bell rang time to line up one of the teacher said, and all the children lined up to get ready to go back to their classes.
We went back to the classroom. I sat down in the chair observer being the children were told to sit down and be quiet. They were very well behaved children as the teacher was giving instruction I observed one boy hiding in a corner had blonde hair and he seemed to be quiet hiper he was doing his own thing like in his own world, but he was also interested in occasionally what was going on with the other children.
The teacher was giving the children instruction and then heated accounting game. He was asking the children to count nought to 20 with hand gestures for example on the head on the shoulders on the tummy on the needs and on the feet, so as they counted the numbers they had movement alongside the children seemed to enjoy this it was a very playful.
The teacher gave instructions for the children to go to all the different tables with in the tables and around the tables. There was different activities, for instance, drawing colouring in creative paperwork building blocks are reading corner. I observed the children went to different tables and started to do an activity. The first table I went over to was where for children was sitting and they would do in different drawings. I observed each drawing individually and I asked each child, what with a drawing on what their name was and I observed they were being very creative very quiet and they enjoyed the interaction I was giving to them. It seemed to make and feel more interested in what they were drawing and then I moved along to see what other children were doing.
I looked around the room. There was some boys in a corner. They weren’t exactly doing anything but they showed me the interesting art work on the wall. I asked them what is this one of the boys replied its nights I said, it’s very nice and then they began to show me the shields of the kinght and they said the shields going this little pocket and the kind are playing a game with it and there was very interested that I came over to them and they started talking to me.
And I scanned the room again, looking around, I noticed there was a reading corner. There was. 3 children sitting in the reading corner I said hello . One of the children invited me to sit down, so I sat on the floor. Then I asked the children. Their names and they told me they showed me the books that they chose to be so I said, who would like to be first to read me a book the boy in the middle of the two girls put his hand up . I said you would like to go second. So one of the other girls on the left-hand side put her land up and then I said to her girl that was left would you like to go third. She replied, yes, I observed that were very interactive with me and they like the fact that I was interested in listening to their stories so the boy read his story very confidently I said to him. Well done that was a really good story. I really enjoyed it when he was reading part of the story. I was making faces and his two girls were laughing the girls seemed to like this because this this story was about a character eating cake and they too much of the cake and I was making suggestions that when you eat too much cake you get full up. They seem to make an association with what I was doing and the story and how it help them express laughter freely.
Then second reader which was a girl showed me her book it was a book about a spider. She told me she liked spiders. I liked spiders too. Then she began to read the book I noticed instantly that the book was too difficult for her. Maybe found it was a high level, but nevertheless she bravely continued to try and meet the book I began to help her sound out the words that that was extremely difficult for her and then I letter read for a little while, by itself, and helped when she needed it at the end of the book she was telling me about her spider at home. She evidently collected a spider put it in the jar and it’s her pet. I found that very interesting that she chose a book that associates with her pet spider I said to her very well done for reading the book, as I found she had difficulty, but she never give up and then the third girl was just going to read her book, but time was up. They had to go on the carpet. I said to the third girl, never mind you, been very patient. Maybe next time when I come you can read a book to me. She seemed very happy with that. Then they got up, put the books away and went to the carpet. I found it very interesting How they really wanted to read me the book also they called me miss their she and I was a teacher which was very nice. I just like the fact really that through storytelling they characters come out in different ways. Whether you’re confident and confident still they characters was there.
When they sat on the carpet. They were told to keep quiet. They were shown little cards on the blackboard so they understood what that meant for the example. There was lips on the card that meant to be quiet. 2 there was a card showing a child sitting correctly waiting patiently the children seemed to respond to the cards very well then they had snack time they had to sit in the circle quietly and they were asked if they had any allergies. None of the children replied so the teacher continued. He checked the medical card to see if there was any children listed with allergies. Everything was okay. Then the snacks were given out the children were very sure of what they liked and what they didn’t liked most of them took a snack, which consist of raisins lollipops and cheese strings I noticed most of the children wanted cheese strings, but they ran out very quickly so that wasn’t enough to go around one child in particular didn’t want anything else. But there was no cheese strings left as the teacher explained to her and she sat down quietly and understood.
Then the children was told to sit in a line and then there was shown a film. It was a film about dog called peeping and and aeroplane with an actress, the owner of the dog within the film. The children seemed very fixed upon the dog and the storyline, the storyline was about the dog called peeping and if it was the dog’s birthday. The dog was aged two, the children watched the film, but they’ve got very short attention span and started to asked to go to the toilet and get some water, but most of the time they sat and watched the majority of the film, I noticed that girls laws in particular was extremely interested in the storyline was very focused on the dog Pip her and what the dog was doing. They found it very funny when the dogs tripped the lady up that was carrying a cake and sausages the cake and sausages went everywhere. But in particular the lady just had her dress drycleaned for the party and now it was fall of cake and the children found it very funny, interesting to see children finding this slap type comedy funny and to be able to respond to it at this early age.
For me, I learnt what goes on in the classroom and how the children are being educated. It was very insight for me as I never actually knew what went on with in a class of children of primary school age. I was surprised how the children interacted with all the students and they were very interested who we are were , but none of the children actually asked who we were. They just accepted that we were teachers and they called us miss of Mr four.
Then they will call to line up for dinner, a teacher come in the door. She called out the children that had packed lunches first I notice the children didn’t respond very quickly and then she called their names again and then they come up one by one and took their packed lunches out of the box that was put into the classroom earlier by another child from the same school. Then they asked the other children that was left to line up no pushing and to be quiet and wait their turn. It seemed throughout the class that a that they knew they shouldn’t be rude or Push one another as at the beginning of the session they were asked if they knew the 3 rules and some of the children put their hands up. Some of them got the first rule no no violence, no bullying and I think one person got the second rule l. You must share and I think the third rule, be kind to one another. I think this is really really helped the children to understand out to socialise with each other and tried to know have how to behave.
Log Entry 20
Reflection on readings
Topic: Theatre and young audiences
Date: February 2015
Reading 1 – Francis puppetry dramaturgy.
Francis, P. (20 12) puppetry ‘Dramaturgy PP.-12
Within the reading, dramaturgy is referring to 2 things. The first thing is the theatre works scripted for performance by puppets pants human beings doing the performances with the puppets and then the contrast of the stage of the performance Text and the inner presentation works.
Francis says that due in the preparation of (1890 – 1935) theatre artists was extremely attached to puppets and they were so deeply involved that they believe the actors could not carry out the spiritual inclinasment of the characteristics that the puppet could portray. The themes that was around at that time was religious very spiritual, magic madness, also death and dark sentiments all these are used within Puppet performances to present at the time.
Just some point before the 20thcentury. The format for scripting that was used for puppets was very similar scripts that were used for the human performer also to whom the puppet would be imitating at the time.
It seems there was speaking line and singing alongside dancing Francis explanation was that because of the impact of visual theatre. This gave opportunity for puppetry to obtain a place
with in the mainstream table. Francis continued to write about the play scripts for children and this was around the middle of the 20 th century time, there was lots of books of play scripts that was produced specially for the children and most was overloaded with dialogue, but the majority of the dialogue was left out earlier sensibility that was connected to puppetry ascetics led to children’s
needs to have understanding of what that may be. Therefore, only went to some of the stories were successful and will be used in presenting that day.
Children seemed to be able to respond to people that got characteristics ‘painted with bald brush strokes’ this is when characters get recognised from the child’s own perspective and this can be a good bad or happy or sad.The fall or visual intervention is the ones that give a big impact as the transformation in changes with the scale; the action is flowing with engaging and has surprises within it. This gives the children visual consumptions to understand the views of television and cinema and keeps them interested in what’s going on. Francis writes on that a young child of age. Two years can understand that using non-violence humour as they can see their self with in this scenario, therefore having a natural understanding of what’s going on.

Reading 2 – Devising performance.
Haddon & milling (2006), devising performance ‘devising and communities’. . 130- 156

Within this reading, heddon and milling talked about diverse in along with community arts. They started by letting us know about how early on, devising within the community arts and was closely considered to political and alterative theatre and were once a part of a movement that was democratisation of culture.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, the community was known as a set of social meaning and this gives consistent sees creating showing the mental with in the action and interaction of the member and the socialisation with society which says that the activity of communities could be powerful indeed.

Heddon then outlined the characteristics of the community theatre and its participation, and then see and say, devising practices are used or has been used within the community arts over the last 40 years and we may take in the spectrum and what the companies may have level of involving the communities members. Then the produce a political part to the works.
Reading 3 – David Wood master- class/symposium
HTTP; //theatre futures.org.uk/theatre- for-Young- audiences=
Centre/Rose- bur ford-College-tya/David- wood-symposium/http;//theatrefutures.org.UK/theatre- for-Young- audiences- centre/Rose-bur ford-College-tya/David-wood-symposium/)
This event took place at the barn Theatre at Rose Buford College in April. 20 11 this is the theatre for young audiences placed within the college annual event. It covers a practical view of David’s approach to making theatre for children and young people the audience composed of students from within the Rose Bufford School of performing arts and M a plus. Tya outreach projects which was run by research centre. Acting for children after the three-hour session there was a follow up question and answer section.

Video. 1

David began his session with a practical exercise volunteers that were in the audience were asked to characterise the giant from Rodale (DFG) (Woods plays; 2 Methuen (1919). ER is to begin to act like the Giants and began by sleeping and then to snore, but then to wake up so hungry and massed have a child to eat must consume to eat the child until they go completely satisfied and then they go back to sleep.

He then talks about how the children know the characterisation of the giant and is it the way the actors are moving in slow motion as this shows the appearance of the weight and size.

Continuation of David Woods’s master- class

He says that the actors do not try making it over the top funny as when an actor is asked to improvise. They think that should be done in a funny way.

Nevertheless, some of them were funny and they would be funny to watch and still very frightening. That’s what Rodale intention because he wanted children to have laughter, but wanted to things to be on the dark side to make it frightening as well.

Video 2
in the tasks that happens, David asked the person that is taking part to act out of a role that was given to them on the card, then the audience had to guess what was on the card; a fairly of a Santa Claus or something, most Bold and all choices and the actor must work with the sense of truth or “big acting “was what he called it.

You must take hold of the idea that of playing an animal or in the intimate object because if you can’t then children theatre is not for you will stop.

85% of actors seem to be scared of the “big acting “as it is not an easy thing to do.

Woods State you need to work with in a highlighted reality when working with children.

Video 3 David talks about how he started to write the children, then he talks he’s acting works with in the mainstream adult’s theatre films and working as a magician doing children’s parties. Successful with in productive in a performing. Then there was Saturday morning variety show for the children, as was requested to write “real” play for children “which was much unknown in them days “the first Amendment on a play was pretty dreadful. He was stuck on plays. He then went on to write the owl and the pussycat went to sea (wood’s plays; Methuen. 1999) and was a nationally a great success in London.

Video 4

within this section is based around an exercise using a passage from Woods own version of b, F, G, which shows a main character Sophie is going to be eaten by the giant and this shows the use of narrative, but the first person from the interface from David Edgar, but this is an attack patient Nicolas Nickeby.

There is a remainder us that the actor must work in the moment and the stakes remain high and is now watered down for the child’s audience.
Theatre for children; wood and grant.
This reading, start by talking about the idea that acting for children is easy compared to acting for adults. This is not true, and there are for it is the amount of energy that used at the time and what dedication is applied to acting. The young being challenging acting skills set.

Don’t fall back, into a still or childish type of acting stop.

Never anticipate- feedback encourage it.

Physical fit as a lot of energy is needed.

Avoid cynicism.

Do say thank you to they feel helpful as this is important to the performer.

Self- discipline.
Wood and grant talk about bigger picture to success of children’s theatre and can it is misleading because of tongue and cheek and the play was carefully reconstructed with crucial issues for children.

The readings, says that one of the actors notice that the children themselves did not enjoy themselves as there was no laughter, but on the contrary, if they didn’t like or enjoying it. Then there would have been chattering and moving around going on, but on the other hand, they did like it because of the engagement with the performance, despite no laughing present.
Reading 4 – Young audiences
Reason, M. (20 10). The young audience “theatrical competence PP 85- 99

This reading, reasons, writes the way children perceptions are when you are watching theatre.
He then questions whether children really have the emotional content alongside intellectual and understanding to be able to appreciate what they are watching at the time.

He starts by talking about the approach of theatrical capabilities itself, he then says, according to Bernard Rosenblatt , theacaill literacy requires the ability to perceive and recognise and interpret dramatic symbols systems at different intellectual called levels, therefore reasoning state because of this. The question is done, the ability to gain the understanding of technical symbols have a variety of different ones and this would depend on the age of the member of the audience and also the social factors are taken into account and the theatre experience.

The children show and illustrate their technical abilities using verbal mini cry or the art of mimicking as it was quite common for the children to do this as they are used in non—linguistic jesters with movement as a way to communicate their through in regards with the production they understand what was happening but they could not express what was happening. The children showed tough images that they understood what they were watching as they were drawing they knew exactly what colours to use. They expressed what they knew and this technical language and understanding of staging and development is for characterisation.

Reason, finishes with we learn from this case study because it shows us two things that we do not need to be worried about children development of understanding theatre shows as they don’t have the ability to do this, so the practitioner don’t need to waste time with this because they are engaging with their imagination and joining in themselves.
Reading 5 – dynamics of a children’s audience

Wood and grant (1997) theatre for children ’the dynamics of a children’s audience ’PP 15- 29
The readings starts by devising the differences between an audience of adults, teenagers, and children could the act to an actor, saying” hello ”Woods and grant stated that children would react immediately to the response of “hello ”unlike teenagers which would respond either sitting in silence or raising their eyebrows in contrast to adults audiences which would be to the act in a self-conscious way or not to react at all, even though teenagers and adults feel the excitement similar to children’s expressions. But in a different way.
Would and grant reinstated that when working with children through any project, it is vital to understand what children respond to and what makes them switch on and off as this information is vital.
Wood and grant specify that children are different in many ways;

# Children can become overexcited.

# Children let you know when they are bored- they will properly start talking, take their eyes off the stage or look around for something more interesting.

# Children enjoys being active participants rather than passive spectators- they enjoying a feeding of having a part of the performance.
# Children can be uncompromising and very direct.

#Children’s don’t always choose to come.

# Children far more than adults generate a sense of electricity in the theatre visits for them are exciting as they often meet a new experience or a day off of school, which is something special in their lives actors must acknowledge and respond to this.

# the composition of an audience for a children’s play is so variable.

# not always responds in the same way.
Children’s audience common characteristics.
# Children like being frightened with limits.

# Children make noise during the performance.

# Children are logical.

# Children responds to actions.
Continuation of children’s audience common characteristics.

# Children love stories- a good storyline is essential for any children to play, the story must be within a child understanding, but it does not be simplistic.

# Children will respond differently and unpredictably – note to audiences will respond the same, some will laugh more than others, some will be quicker than others to respond to the plots development.

# Children responds to action.

# Children loves animals and toys.
Reading 6 – Ethics of participatory theatre

The ethics of participatory theatre in higher education; a framework for learning and teaching.

HTTP; //creating- change.org.uk/resources/the/ethics/of/participatory-theatre- in- higher- education (HTTP; //creating- change.org. UK/resources/the/ethics- of-participatory-theatre- in= higher education)

Week three; ethics in participatory arts with Stella Barnes

Today’s class was on ethics with in the participatory arts, which was led by Stella Barnes, the first time we met, Stella Barnes was last term. She runs a class session.

The start of the session seller asked all of us to participate in a task named ’check-in ‘to achieve this we use both of arms to show the group in the class how we were feeding physically or mentally, when we raise both arms up to the sky. This meant we were feeling mentally and physically great, and then when we lowered our arms to the floor. This meant we were feeling physically and mentally and stable, we was given the choice to put one arm up and the other down at this session. This made you identify if you had any personal issues and how you would deal with this.

Then we played some game called 7-Up and what we had to do was to go around in a circle, then we had to count to 7. We worked as a group by saying one number at a time, then we had to point to the person to her left side and then we changed the direction the counting was putting them when number seven was reached. Then we had to put our hands on the heads then flick at this at the same direction where the counting was going, this was a very entertaining way of warming up. They were asked to use attitude, this exercise of warming up is a very energising game to play and I will differ definitely put this in my toolbox.

We then sat down with in a semi-circle stellar then showed us many different faces on pieces of paper. We were then asked to copy the faces using our own facial expressions, I found this very useful and extremely interesting as this made us think how you would engage with children, it was a very good way to become engaged with children.

They did an exercise where two people were up on stage and one person sitting in a chair. Then one person will walk over to them and give them a letter. This exercise was using improvisation, then both members that was on stage were to choose a face that we used earlier in the class so that the characteristics could be shown then sound was added when we did this in pairs will wind up both using and giving and receiving of the letters so you could both understand the giving and receiving sides.

We used to participate from the audience. Their job was to say 123 action at the beginning of the scene or freeze-frame at the end of the scene by using all the different roles that the participants could take part in this gave opportunity to all the participants to take part in open up the participants that may be very shy or new opportunities for the non-theatre education participant to take part.

The evaluation exercise that was where we had to be around in a circle and say one word from the workshop Stella then asked us- two check out using the show of arms that would show how we feel e.g. middle low or up to the sky to checking and to observe what change if any.

What wise did the workshop we do in class. What ethics and values facilitators with in the arts, and we had to think of what they were.

# Respect.
# Choice.

Continuation.

# Safety.
# Equality.
We were asked to use sticky note and asked to write the values was used. We stuck them on a big piece of paper that was on the floor, there were many reasons why one would choose not to participate, but then they may feel that they have participated too many times and they feel they would like to give the chance for someone else that is not done it yet to take part in there is the observation role and note taking is still taking part in another way, we all must remember that we are in the group we all individuals and we can be vulnerable I’ll we must take this on board.
The ethics of participaticipalory theatre in higher education; a framework for learning and teaching.
The practice varies this work that has performance base work that treats personal groups and social development.

It stands between different partictory theatre techniques and has its own ethical codes of its own, soclodrama, drama therapy, playback psychodrama, etc.

Participatory theatre is globally associated with usual and popular theatre forms like theatre in education format theatre and (theatre of the oppressed) also theatre for development.

Practitioners work solely on marginalized groups and others, and need to have spawned to care of duty with in diversity, equality, health and safety.

Log Entry 21
Essay on Dorothy Heathcote
Submitted 9 December

APPLIED PERFORMANCE ESSAY

HOW DOES DOROTHY HEATHCOTE USE DRAMA TO INTERACT WITH CHILDREN?
Introduction
This is a case study of Dorothy Heathcote and Drama in Education. Heathcote was a remarkable educator with theories that were practically influential in the development of Drama in Education. Drama in Education is a technique to help children open up their minds and opinions, and express themselves within a performance arena in an education setting. Heathcote’s teaching and learning approaches inspired teachers from all over the world for more than half a century, because of her innovative and authentic approaches. She died at the age of 81 in 2011 when she about to receive a Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE) because of her contribution to education.

According to Heathcote and Bolton (1995), they were responsible for providing Drama in Education training for teachers and other professionals who were interested in developing drama practice in different educational contents. Most of the work was done to enhance the skills of teachers who were already experienced educators which sometimes included actors, although a small percentage of mentorship was provided to student teachers. The student teachers were helpful in establishing a partnership between Heathcote and the children that she was working with. Heathcote and her trainees pushed the boundaries of dramatic expression by asking students to improvise a story line within specified boundaries which enabled them to think creatively and express themselves freely and naturally.

In this essay, I will explore how Heathcote negotiates the teaching and learning process with children, how she connects with children and uses that connection to achieve communication. Then I will look at how Heathcote universalises the human dilemma and what dilemmas children are involved in when in role. Finally I will explore how Heathcote uses the Mantle across the Curriculum and her role as a facilitator.
How does Heathcote negotiate the teaching and learning process with children?

Heathcote negotiates the drama role-play through participatory approaches. The use of drama in education is well established and has been a part of education since the Renaissance when training in language literature (Heathcote, 19xx, p. xx). See Nicholson
In Drama and Learning (Heathcote, 1936) formal teaching in the classroom depends on techniques that include:
• An area in which the class can make decisions.
• Plan on to get the class involved and committed to work.
• By trying to understand how every verbal statement made would make an impact.
• Selecting signals and being extra careful and sensitive while doing teaching expressions
• By working slowly at the start and not to move until the class is committed to work because the class is expected to like drama automatically
• By giving positive comments to the class
Drama learning will arise through life experience and engagement with a dramatic world. Drama can, at the same time, give the educator a greater understanding of the participant by showing a story that the participant can relate to real life.
Through being a facilitator within my Applied Theatre workshop, I explored how to negotiate roles, and used communication and expression with my fellow students to include them in the play and games that we were creating. While teaching Sunday school children drama, singing and dance, I used Heathcote’s techniques to help the children open up and express themselves freely.

Drama in education can become problematic at college level when students who are used to improvising and choosing their own forms of theatre and drama techniques are suddenly faced with have to use specific techniques with specific texts which are imposed on them by their tutors. Drama is usually understood as text and theatre performances in front of an audience according to An Actor (Author xxx,1936). Heathcote (19xx) argues that teaching a formal theatre curriculum is quite easy to plan and evaluate because of the improvisation skills needed within the professional theatre, as shown by Stanislavski (19xx, reference needed for Method Acting and Basic Principles).
Heathcote’s (19xx) technique puts an emphasis on teachers to initiate, to direct, to put a time on the work, and to show guidance and mentoring throughout. This technique helps the teacher to engage with and be accepted by the children so that it can be used as a form of discipline when their behaviour becomes a problem. The teacher can better understand this behaviour. Heathcote points out the solutions available to her:
“She does not abandon her stance as a teacher, but builds trust in the drama by negotiating as a teacher. This helps the students to do things and the teacher helps to see the job of the teacher ‘in role’ show the students how to actively participate in the fictional event.” (Heathcote, 19xx p.xx)
How does Heathcote connect with children to achieve communication?

Heathcote negotiates by committing and being involved in the play itself. Heathcote consider that the use of sign is one of the teaching essentials and tools. The sign is the heart of communication within the human face? However, it is the individuals or the virtual world within the theatre. When Heathcote reversed to signs and portents, she is related to her background within theatre because of her sign in the classroom.

Theatre as an art-form is entirely based on sign and Heathcote’s development of her thirty-three conventions displaying her deep understanding of theatrical processes and the way this may be used within drama and education.

The role of the teacher is to show the student how to actively participate in the fictional events. However, the teacher’s job is to publicly show and be able to read or interpret and be interrogated by the students. Reflection on the event has always been an important element within Heathcote’s work within drama. Therefore, as well as having the experience of being part of the drama, she emphasised knowledge of self-spectatorship as part of art to release the spectator action, showing possible choices or alternative perspective.

When the students are not concentrating, teachers act as spectators and students must be awakened so that they perceive and enjoy the world through action and responsibility even as they function in it. This strategy promotes close attention to details and also shows the importance of reflection and interpretation and the start of understanding the dramatic form. The convention needs a change of learning ways to have an elaboration of understanding and work its way through different kinds of experience.
Can we universalise human dilemma?
The importance of Heathcote methods of teaching was to develop the aesthetic of distance and the use of objects to show how to suspend time within drama, so that the interpretation of events and issues be possible. One technique Heathcote used through manipulation, but with different degrees of distance within the work, was the use of the frames.

She explains the concept of frames in signs and portents as one of her most influential pieces of writing that Heathcote has ever produced and is widely cited within publications and academic study. This was written in the journal of the standing conferences of Young People’s Theatre, and then Theatre in Education (Ref….). Much of the philosophy and practice of Theatre in Education is still used within drama practice, but within applied theatre as is international known.

In role, what dilemmas are the children involved in?
According to Heathcote’s practice (1978), working with children for teachers need to be aligned with a relationship between the teacher and the student. This encourages students to draw power from their teachers, and the teachers empower the students. However, it is made clear that there is a requirement of mutual understanding between the students and teachers and both should agree mutual respect, constantly paying attention to students’ attitudes and their responses with teachers having the ability not to judge students by their behaviour. Heathcote clearly says that drama is a social art, which teachers agree to by encountering students’ performances. She knew that teaching is an open skill that is expected to change at any minute and teachers should be responsive to spontaneous changes in the classroom. She had a clear understanding of difficult situations that may happen, and risks that may arise due to unpredictable situations. Her advice was to encourage teachers to watch children playing and to become comfortable with play. (Dorothy Heathcote on Education and Drama, Essential writings)

However, Heathcote has two concerns with regards to teaching; the first one is the way a teacher exchange approaches students in a class and the second is that she prefers communication to be a two-way between teacher and student. Her concern is the communication in classroom settings between teachers and students is elemental and the centre of the education system.

Mantle Across the curriculum
The dilemmas children are involved in are how to improvise with the nature stating of the play or story and to respond through communication.
Changing the techniques that Stanislav’s Viola Spolin (improvising for the theatre 1964) developed 200 acting games and exercises and was developed for actors and young people also. The community spontaneous exercises are still important part of drama training programmes. It is taught of different countries mainly in college and secondary levels.
Pioneered approach within Britain by Dorothy Heathcote and Gavin Bolton is broadly used around the world. Heathcote used ending within the product as an experience within itself and the reflection that works Heathcote works are on theatre forms.
Heathcote started work within the function of the teacher during the lesson using drama teacher and remains as the external facilitator. However Heathcote like to adopt the role herself therefore a director side. This is known as the teacher in-role and Heathcote identified this.

Heathcote education was to work on building a reflection and energy of writing and map marking. Just in the recent years, Heathcote developed learning through reflection and gaining experience. This is because the drama group is using nature to become popular among drama teacher.
The teacher within the role is a strategic and profound officer on drama and many different places throughout the world. The foundation shows it is important a collaboration is demonstrating sharing. Power structure between student and teacher whether it is site pacific or in a classroom of a theatre.

To conclude, Dorothy Heathcote and Drama in Education looks at:
In-role, how is she facilitating what is happening?
The teachers’ role is to facilitate within the classroom. Drama uses the teacher to engage in the happenings in classroom differently.

Mantle of the Expert: key elements published in the Turkish Creative Drama journal (2010), gives a good understanding to the approach that is specific to learning goals, which schools are supposed to achieve. This approach has the instinct in pretending to play what has been taught and achieve the learning outcomes. The teacher would have to model and behave as a student by using a selective language and signing. This helps the students to learn about things and to thinking within the situation. This makes students to engage and accept responsibility on how to respond to their clients’ needs.
Below are elements that are essential to generating and sustaining Mantle of the Expert according to the website, mantleoftheexpert.com:
• The teacher’s language sustains the fiction
• Teachers may have to work in a different role
• Having work progress through relevant tasks
• When teachers and students behave ‘as if’ produces the ‘now time’ in the drama of deep play elements.
• Introduce “if early on and in a way that will appeal to the particular class” (give the students a glimpse through the raised curtain)
• Give the group power to function, this gives the work its overall dynamic, in respect of what is seen as the major overall task, mainly by steps needed over minor steps.
There are aspects in which drama seems to be a force in developing social process. The responsibilities of changing dramatic work lies in the teachers (Toffler, 1980). He suggests the teaching should begin with the teachers themselves and not closing their minds prematurely to the novel.
According to Mantle of the Expert: key elements, students are taught in a way that their teachers perceive them. Students’ attitudes are picked up by teachers during their class contact and this generates perceptions.